Presentation on theme: "Warm-up Activity Write the entire alphabet with your non-dominant hand."— Presentation transcript:
Warm-up Activity Write the entire alphabet with your non-dominant hand.
Child Development Principles and Theories HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Child Development Studying and understanding child growth and development are important parts of teaching young children. No two children are alike! To help all children, you need to understand the sequence of their development. Healthy brain development results from healthy human contact.
Development Development: changes that occur in children. Starts at infancy and continues to adulthood. Growth: physical changes Infancy: 0 – 12 months Toddlers: 12 months to 3 years Preschooler: 3 – 6 years School age: 6 – 12 years Adolescents:13 – 18 years
Areas of Development The study of child development is often divided into 4 main areas: Physical development: physical body changes that occur in a relatively stable, predictable sequence. Cognitive development: intellectual developments, language, thought, reasoning, and imagination. Social: Emotional development= learning to relate to others, feelings & expression of emotions. John John learns emotions
Physical Development Growth in size and in proportion Muscle coordination and control Gross-motor development= improvement of skills using the large muscles in the legs and arms. Running, skipping, and bike riding Rolling over, lifting head or sitting up Fine-motor development= involves the small muscles of the hands and fingers. Grasping, holding, cutting, and drawing
Cognitive Development Intellectual The ability of the brain or mind to take-in and process information. Language, thought and reasoning Child recognizing their name or a parent Responding to the shake of a rattle Identifying colors
Social Development Learning to relate to one another Discovering the expectations and rules for interaction. Child smiling at mother, a child learning to share a toy with a friend.
Emotional Development Ability to recognize and understand feelings and how to respond to them appropriately Trust, fear, confidence, pride, friendship and humor
Principles of Development Cephalocaudal principle: development tends to proceed from the head downward. According to this principle, the child first gains control of the head, then arms, then legs. Infants gain control of head and face movements within the first 2 months after birth. By 6-12 months of age, infants start to gain leg control and may be able to crawl, stand or walk.
Principles of Development Proximodistal principle: development also proceeds from the center of the body outward. The spinal cord develops first, The child’s arms develop before the hands, and the hands and feet develop before the fingers and toes. Maturation: refers to the sequence of biological changes in children. Children must mature to a certain point before they can gain some skills.
Generalizations of Growth and Development Here we grow again…Principles of Development
Brain Development Neurons= specialized nerve cells that link or connect. Synapses= links neurons together, “brain wiring”. The more synapses there are the greater number of messages that can pass through the brain. Sensory stimulation= a child’s growing brain responds each time a caregiver reads, sings, etc. Plasticity= ability of an infant’s brain to change according to stimulation.
Brain Development Overstimulation= a flood of sounds and sights, can cause stress to infants. Cortisol= when under stress, the body produces this steroid. Over a long length of time, coritsol can lead to problems with memory and regulating emotion.
Windows of Opportunity Vision= birth to 6 months Vocabulary= prenatal to 8 years Emotional= birth to 3 years Math/logic= birth to 3 years Motor skills= 1 to 4 years