4 Terms to Know Reflex Motor sequence Object permanence Deferred imitationTelegraphic speechTemperamentAttachmentSeparation anxiety
5 Physical Development Size and Shape Approximately 7 ½ pounds at birth, to 22 pounds at 1 year.By 2 years, most children weigh 4x birth weightAvg. newborn measures 20 inches.By 2 years, most children measure 32 to 36 inchesBoys are taller and heavier than girls.Boys reach half their adult height by 2 years oldGirls will have passed their halfway mark by 1 or 2 inches.
6 Physical Development Reflexes Palmar Grasp An automatic body response to a stimulusSuckingHelps the infant obtain food for survivalRootingTurn head toward anything that touches the faceMoroAka “startle reflex”Flings legs and arms outward and extends headPalmar GraspTouch the baby’s palms and it will grip tightly.Grip is tight enough to lift baby into sitting positionBabinskiWhen stroking the sole of the foot on outside from heel to toe, toes will fan out and foot twists inStepping / WalkingWhen feet are held flat on a surface, the infant will lift one foot after another into a stepping motion
7 Physical Development Motor Sequence Head and trunk control The order in which a child is able to perform new movementsEach new movement builds on previous abilitiesHead and trunk controlRolling overSit uprightGradually able to pull themselves into sitting positionsCrawlCreepStand with supportWalk with help of an adultStand without supportWalk with no help
8 Health and Safety SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) To reduce risk: Place infants on their backs for sleepProvide a firm crib, covered by a sheetKeep soft materials, such as comforters, pillows, and stuffed toys out of the cribMake sure the sleeping area is a comfortable temperature to keep infants from becoming overheated
9 Failure to ThriveSymptoms include lack of weight gain and height growth in comparison to other children of the same agePlanned causesMalnutrition by neglectUnplanned causesLow birth weightPovertyPoor social interactionImproper feeding skillsDisease (gastric reflux, cystic fibrosis, lead poisoning)
10 Cognitive Development Birth to 3 monthsVision is blurry at birthAs vision improves, infants show preferences for certain objectsFrom birth, infants will turn their head towards a soundBy 3 weeks, infants can distinguish between voice of parent and voice of a stranger3 to 6 monthsInfants start to learn they can touch, shake, and hit objects they seeMemory, foresight and self – awareness developNew responses, such as cooing
11 Cognitive Development 6 to 9 monthsObject permanence – objects continue to exist even if they cannot be seenOP shows a developing memoryLearning communication by crying to call person12 to 18 monthsFind new ways to use toys (rolling, tossing, bouncing)Cause and effect (hit water=ripples/splash)Learn to say many new words
12 Cognitive Development 18 to 24 monthsThink before actingActively exploring everythingDo not realize the dangers in actionsDeferred imitation – watching another person’s behavior and then acting out that behaviorTelegraphic speech – short, 2 word sentences (ex: doggie bark, baby cry)
13 Social – Emotional Development After the 1st birthday, children take more interest in other toddlers, however adults are still most important to children in this age group.TemperamentThe quality and intensity of emotional reactions.Passivity – how actively involved a child is with surroundingsIrritability – tendency to feel distressedActivity patterns – levels of movementEach child has a different temperament and you must adjust to the mood of each child.
14 Social – Emotional Development AttachmentThe strong emotional connection that develops between peopleInfants mainly become attached to the people who care for them (mother, father, siblings)Quality of attachment depends on adults’ responsesSeparation Anxiety – when a child protests because a familiar caregiver is leaving