From Birth to Age 2
Terms to Know Reflex Motor sequence Object permanence
Deferred imitation Telegraphic speech Temperament Attachment Separation anxiety
Physical Development Size and Shape
Approximately 7 ½ pounds at birth, to 22 pounds at 1 year. By 2 years, most children weigh 4x birth weight Avg. newborn measures 20 inches. By 2 years, most children measure 32 to 36 inches Boys are taller and heavier than girls. Boys reach half their adult height by 2 years old Girls will have passed their halfway mark by 1 or 2 inches.
Physical Development Reflexes Palmar Grasp
An automatic body response to a stimulus Sucking Helps the infant obtain food for survival Rooting Turn head toward anything that touches the face Moro Aka “startle reflex” Flings legs and arms outward and extends head Palmar Grasp Touch the baby’s palms and it will grip tightly. Grip is tight enough to lift baby into sitting position Babinski When stroking the sole of the foot on outside from heel to toe, toes will fan out and foot twists in Stepping / Walking When feet are held flat on a surface, the infant will lift one foot after another into a stepping motion
Physical Development Motor Sequence Head and trunk control
The order in which a child is able to perform new movements Each new movement builds on previous abilities Head and trunk control Rolling over Sit upright Gradually able to pull themselves into sitting positions Crawl Creep Stand with support Walk with help of an adult Stand without support Walk with no help
Health and Safety SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) To reduce risk:
Place infants on their backs for sleep Provide a firm crib, covered by a sheet Keep soft materials, such as comforters, pillows, and stuffed toys out of the crib Make sure the sleeping area is a comfortable temperature to keep infants from becoming overheated
Failure to Thrive Symptoms include lack of weight gain and height growth in comparison to other children of the same age Planned causes Malnutrition by neglect Unplanned causes Low birth weight Poverty Poor social interaction Improper feeding skills Disease (gastric reflux, cystic fibrosis, lead poisoning)
Birth to 3 months Vision is blurry at birth As vision improves, infants show preferences for certain objects From birth, infants will turn their head towards a sound By 3 weeks, infants can distinguish between voice of parent and voice of a stranger 3 to 6 months Infants start to learn they can touch, shake, and hit objects they see Memory, foresight and self – awareness develop New responses, such as cooing
6 to 9 months Object permanence – objects continue to exist even if they cannot be seen OP shows a developing memory Learning communication by crying to call person 12 to 18 months Find new ways to use toys (rolling, tossing, bouncing) Cause and effect (hit water=ripples/splash) Learn to say many new words
18 to 24 months Think before acting Actively exploring everything Do not realize the dangers in actions Deferred imitation – watching another person’s behavior and then acting out that behavior Telegraphic speech – short, 2 word sentences (ex: doggie bark, baby cry)
Social – Emotional Development
After the 1st birthday, children take more interest in other toddlers, however adults are still most important to children in this age group. Temperament The quality and intensity of emotional reactions. Passivity – how actively involved a child is with surroundings Irritability – tendency to feel distressed Activity patterns – levels of movement Each child has a different temperament and you must adjust to the mood of each child.
Social – Emotional Development
Attachment The strong emotional connection that develops between people Infants mainly become attached to the people who care for them (mother, father, siblings) Quality of attachment depends on adults’ responses Separation Anxiety – when a child protests because a familiar caregiver is leaving
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