Growth During 1st Year
Weight Babies generally triple their birth weight in the first year
Slight weight loss after birth then a steady gain. 1st 6 mths lbs/mth. next 6 mths 1 lb/mth Average 1 year old weighs between 20-22lbs
Length / Height - average newborn - 51 cm
- steady growth in the first year a result of rapid bone growth - average 1 year old – 76 cm - heredity has more influence on height than weight
Proportion The size relationship between different body parts.
Compared to the rest of the body, a baby’s head and abdomen are large and the legs and arms are short and small.
A babies head grow rapidly during the first year to accommodate the swiftly developing brain
More than half of the total growth of the head occurs during this time Fontanels allow the head to grow, they later close up permanently
Development During 1st Year
Vision Blurry at birth 1 month – can focus
6 months – eyesight reaches clarity and sharpness of an adult
Depth Perception The ability to recognize 3 dimensional objects
2nd month Allows children to track movement and reach for objects by judging distance
Hearing Develops before birth.
At birth can recognize the direction sound comes from Soothing voice will calm them Startled by loud or angry voices 7 mths – can identify voices Language development relies on hearing
Smell and Taste Newborns respond to odors
At 10 days baby can notice smell of mom At 2 weeks baby can taste differences At an early age babies show a preference for sweet
Voice Newborn’s cry is shrill, but becomes softer as their lungs mature. Change results from the physical growth of the throat muscles, tongue, lips, teeth and vocal cords Babies prepare for speech by making word related sounds
Teeth Development of baby teeth begin 6th week of pregnancy.
“Primary teeth” or baby teeth appear at 6-7 months. Teething is normal but painful. Some babies refuse food and drool a lot. Lasts up to two years. 20 primary teeth. Tooth Care Infant’s mouth should be cleaned with a damp piece of gauze after each feeding.
Motor Skills The abilities that depend on the use and control of muscles. Two basic types of motor skills Gross motor skills Large muscles – legs, shoulders Large movements – jumping and running Fine motor skills Smaller muscles – fingers Small precise movements – using scissors
At birth, babies have little or no control over their muscles
Most movements are reflexes
Reflexes Newborns are born with reflexes to help them survive their first several weeks Sucking reflex – stimulated when something is put in their mouth Rooting reflex – stroking the babies cheek Others Shutting eyes under bright lights Grabbing fingers Stepping motion when feet touch the floor Most go away when babies learn to control their muscles
Hand Eye Co-ordination
The ability to move the hands and fingers precisely in relation to what is seen. Very poor in newborns but develops as vision and motor skills improve At 3 or 4 months, babies can reach, grab and put things in their mouth.
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