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© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 8 Physical Development of the Infant
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Describe how an infant develops physically during the first year.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Skeletal system is Skeletal system Length – increase birth length by – reach 1.5 times their birth length – boys are usually ¾ inch continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Weight – around 9 months, – boys are usually 1½ pounds heavier than girls boys have more girls have more continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Average length and weight during first year continued Age in Months LengthWeight Birth20 in.7½ lbs. 323¾ in.12½ lbs. 626 in.26¾ lbs. 928 in.20 lbs. 1229½ in.22¼ lbs.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Failure to thrive is a condition in which Failure to thrive Possible causes – disease preventing – – feedings offered too – continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Body proportions (relative size of body parts) Body proportions – infant’s head one-fourth ; adult’s head one-eighth Head larger “Pot-bellied” Center of gravity continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Infant skeleton is mainly made of cartilage – large spaces between “bones” to – skeletons are not sturdy, which makes – continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Babies need to change position often – tummy time continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth During the first year, three changes occur in a baby’s bones – – ossification (depositing ) begins ossification – number of bones few bones in hand parts of skull become continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Deciduous teeth (nonpermanent) Deciduous teeth – most babies begin cutting teeth
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. What Do You Think? How should families care for an infant’s deciduous teeth? Why is it important to practice healthy dental hygiene for teeth that will be replaced by permanent teeth at a later date?
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Describe the order in which an infant’s motor skills develop.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Motor Development Motor development is the use and control of Motor development Gross-motor skills use Gross-motor skills – Fine-motor skills use Fine-motor skills – continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Motor Development Baby’s motor skills develop in three main patterns – movements are slow – reactions develop – development occurs
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Head-to-Foot Development Begins before birth Milestones are – order of steps Age norm is Age norm – can be expressed as an continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Head-to-Foot Development continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Head-to-Foot Development Crawl means to Crawl – about seven months Creeping means to Creeping – between six and eight months Cruising means to Cruising – between 12 and 14 months
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Center-to-Extremities Development continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Center-to-Extremities Development Control of arms, hands, fingers develop in stages – – at two months, – about four months, well developed – at eight or nine months,
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. What Do You Think? How can adult caregivers support head-to-foot development and center-to-extremities development of infants? Describe some specific activities that can be incorporated into the infant’s daily schedule.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. age norm. Typical time when a developmental milestone, such as walking or talking, occurs; an age norm can be expressed as an average age or an age range. body proportions. Relative size of body parts. crawl. Moving by pulling with the arms, but not lifting the abdomen from the floor. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. creeping. Moving by using the hands and knees or the hands and feet with the abdomen off the floor. cruising. Walking by holding something for support. deciduous teeth. First set of teeth, which will later be replaced by permanent teeth; also called nonpermanent or baby teeth. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. failure to thrive. Condition in which a child fails to grow at a healthy rate. fine-motor skills. Being able to use and control the small muscles, especially those in the fingers and hands. gross-motor skills. Being able to use the large muscles to roll over, sit, crawl, stand, and walk. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. motor development. Use and control of muscles that direct body movements. ossification. Hardening of bones caused by the depositing of the minerals calcium and phosphorus. skeletal system. Body system that includes the bones and teeth. voluntary grasping. Intentional grasping of objects. Glossary of Key Terms
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© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.. 8 Physical Development of the Infant.
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