Presentation on theme: "Early Motor Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Early Motor Development chapter 5Early Motor Development
2 Early Motor Behavior Can be reflexive or spontaneous (Clark, 1995) Reflexive: stereotypical response elicited by a specific external stimuliSpontaneous: movements not caused by known external stimuli
3 Spontaneous Behaviors Assumed to be extraneous movements with no purposeSimilar to “mature” movementsExamplesSpontaneous arm movements and reachingSpontaneous kicking and adult walking
5 Reflexes Reflexes occur quickly after onset of stimuli. They involve a single or specific group of muscles (not the whole body).They resist habituation (at any one time).Persistence may indicate neurological problems.
6 Purpose of Reflexes Built-in responses facilitate survival. They enable open dialogue with the environment.Reflexive movements result in sensory consequences (adaptation).Reflexes provide building blocks for future movement.
7 Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex Infant starts in supine position.Stimulus: turn head to one side.Response: same-side arm and leg extend.
8 Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex Infant starts in supported sitting.Stimulus: extend head and neck or flex head and neck.Response: arms extend and legs flex, or arms flex and legs extend.
9 Palmar Grasp Reflex Stimulus: touch palm with finger or object. Response: hand closes tightly around object.
10 Moro Reflex Infant starts in supine position. Stimulus: shake head (e.g., by tapping pillow).Response: arms, legs, and fingers extend; then arms and legs flex.
11 Stepping Reflex Stimulus: place soles of feet on flat surface. Response: walking pattern of legs.
12 More Reflexes Sucking reflex Stimulus: touch face above or below the lips.Response: sucking motion begins.Babinski reflexStimulus: stroke sole of foot from heel to toe.Response: toes extend.
13 Constraints What constraints exist during the reflexive period? StructuralFunctionalEnvironmental physicalEnvironmental socioculturalTask: goals, rules, equipmentClick to add notes
14 Later Infancy Gain voluntary control of movements Understanding of environment, objects in the environmentMeaningful interactions with othersPostural reactions
15 Postural Reactions Begin at around 4 months Help to maintain posture in a changing environmentInitially, similar to reflexes; later, incorporated into general repertoire
16 Labyrinthine Righting Reflex Infant is supported upright.Stimulus: tilt infant.Response: head moves to stay upright.
17 More Postural Reactions Derotative rightingInfant starts in supine position.Stimulus: turn head to one side, or turn legs and pelvis to other side.Response: body follows head in rotation, or trunk and head follow in rotation.ParachuteInfant held upright.Stimulus: lower infant toward ground rapidly.Response: legs and arms extend.
18 Motor Milestones Fundamental motor skills Building blocksCumulative, sequentialLead to future complex motor skillsSpecific movements that lead to general actions
19 Locomotor and Posture Motor Milestones: An Example Emily at 2 months(continued)
20 Locomotor and Posture Motor Milestones (continued) 2 months: lifts head in prone3 months: lifts shoulders (turns head)(continued)
21 Locomotor and Posture Motor Milestones (continued) 5 months: rolls over; sits unsupported(continued)
22 Locomotor and Posture Motor Milestones (continued) 7 months: gets on hands and knees8 months: creeps on hands and knees(continued)
23 Locomotor and Posture Motor Milestones (continued) 9 months:pulls to stand; cruises furnitureClick to add notes(continued)
24 Locomotor and Posture Motor Milestones (continued) 10 months: stands alone12 months: walks alone
25 Rate Limiters, or Controllers Individual constraints that inhibit or slow the attainment of a motor skillRapidly changing during early childhood periods