2 IntroductionAdults don’t change much in a year of two. Hair will be a little longer, grayer, might gain or lose weight.On contrast, if you cared for a newborn 24 hours a day for a month, went away for two years, and then came back, you might not be able to recognize them because:Quadrupled in weight, grown taller by more than a foot and sprouted hair
3 Rapid Growth during Infant Years Body Growth of Infants:Average infant weighs 7 ½ poundsTypically double their birth weight by 4th month and triple by their 1st birthday.By 24 months most children weigh almost 30 lbs and are between inches.(Much weight that increases in early months is fat, to provide insulation for warmth and a store of nourishment)
4 Dental Growth• On average, a baby’s first tooth appears at around 6 months.• Some babies begin teething as early as 3 months, and others, after their first birthday.• The lower two middle teeth usually come in first, followed by the upper two middle teeth.• During teething, some babies become fussy, lose their appetite, and drool.
5 Brain Development• A baby’s brain reaches three-fourths of its adult weight and size by age 2!• Babies are born with somewhere in the neighborhood of 100 and 200 BILLION neurons.• A complex network of neurons will grow rapidly during the first few years of life.
6 Vision• Within hours after birth, most infants prefer to look at their mother’s face in comparison to other faces.• By 2 and 3 months of age, infants prefer more complex stimuli to simple ones.• In the fist 4 months, infants begin to track moving objects and begin to reach for things.• Between 4 and 8 months, both eyes should focus equally, and eye/body coordination skills improve.• Between 8 and 12 months they use their eyes to judge distances and depth.
8 Hearing Development• For most infants, hearing actually started in the womb.• Shortly after birth, they can recognize the sound of their mother’s voice.• By 4 1/2 months, infants can differentiate their name from other word.
9 Smell and Taste • Most infants have a highly developed sense of smell. • The most common taste preference for infants is sweetness.
10 Touch • Touch is a highly developed sense in the youngest infants. • Infant pain can be detected through facial expressions, an increased heart rate, and a difference in the intensity and tone of their crying.• Infants learn a lot of information by using their mouths to feel, and explore their surroundings.• Once they begin crawling, it’s important to make sure that all choking hazards, and unsafe or toxic objects and substances are safely out of baby’s reach.
11 Reflexes• Reflexes are unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli.• Rooting reflex - turns head toward things that touch his cheek• Sucking reflex - sucks at things that touch her lips• Gag reflex - clears throat• Swimming reflex - kicks legs and paddles arms in a “swimming” motion if lying face down
12 • Eye-blink reflex - shuts and opens eyes in response to direct light • Startle reflex - flings out his arms and legs, arches his back, and fans out fingers in response to a sudden or loud noise• Moro reflex – When something startles them, infant flings their arm outward and then bring them together on their chests.• Stepping reflex- When infant are held upright with their feet touching a flat surface, they move their legs to walk.Babinski reflex- when infants feet are stroked, their toes fan upward.
13 Name that reflexUse the following reflexes and watch the video clips to identify what reflexes the baby is showing:RootingSuckingGagSwimmingEye-BlinkStartleMoroSteppingBabinski
15 Gross and Fine Motor• Gross motor skills involve the large muscles of the arms, legs and abdomen.• Fine motor skills involve the small muscles of the hands and wrists.
16 Gross Motor Milestones o 3 months - raise their head and chest when lying on their stomacho 6 months - roll from their stomach to their backo Between 6 and 7 months- sit without supporto Between 8 and 10 months – crawlo 9 months - pull themselves up to stand with supporto 11 months - stand alone without assistance12 months – walk, first with support then on their own
17 Fine Motor Milestoneso 3 months - coordination of hands, grasp objectso 8 months - pincer graspo 11 months - grasp a crayon and “draw”
18 How does a baby compare?Compare the development of the child using norms or percentiles.A child who is average is at the 50th percentilePercentiles allow a child's growth to be compared not only with that of other children, but also with his or her own prior development.
19 What should My Infant be able to do?? Make a timeline for the physical development of an infant in their first year.Include 1-2 developments for each monthYou can use information discussed in class as well as Developing Child book to fill out your timeline.
20 Is My Baby OK?Parents often wonder what is typical/ atypical behavior.Today we are going to classify typical and atypical behaviors.