2 Patterns of Physical Development Head to FootLifts up head first, then shoulders, then knees to eventually standingStarts long before birth when the head takes the lead in developmentNear to farThey move their arms and legs before their fingers and toesSimple to ComplexThey learn to use their large muscles first then their fine muscles
3 Influences on Growth and Development HeredityGenes influence a person’s intellectual potential and artistic abilitiesNutritionEating nutritious foods is going to insure that a child develops properlyHealthIf babies are born sick they may develop slowerExperiencesInteraction with parents and other family members also influences the way a child develops
4 More Influences Environment Making sure that babies have a stimulating environment which means that they have a variety of things to see, taste, smell, hear, and touch enhances brain development
5 Growth in First Year Weight Length Body Shape Proportion A baby usually gains about pounds in its first year.LengthThey usually grow about inches in the first yearBody ShapeNewborns usually hold themselves in a curled positionAs they get older they tend to stretch out moreProportionA baby’s head and abdomen are its largest body parts.
6 Development During the 1st Year VisionAt first, their vision is blurry and doesn’t reach the clarity of an adults vision till around 6 monthsHearingBabies hearing develops long before they are born. They are able to recognize voices that are heard while in the womb once they are born.Smell and TasteFrom a few days after birth, a newborn can determine its mother’s smell from another personsBabies usually show a preference for sweet tastes early onTouchNewborns usually lack sufficient brain development and movement skills to explore their world through touch.VoiceNewborns cries are shrills which softens as the baby lungs mature. The tongue and inside of mouth change in shape during the first months of life
7 Motor SkillsReflexes occur since babies have little control over their musclesGross motor skills (large muscles)Babies learn to control these first: legs, arms, shouldersFine motor skills (small muscles)Babies learn to control these later which include: fingers, toes, and activities requiring precise movements.
8 Reflexes Sucking reflex Rooting reflex Grasping reflex Happens whenever something is put in the baby’s mouthRooting reflexWhenever a baby’s cheek is rubbed a baby usually turns toward the side it was rubbed onGrasping reflexWhenever you place something in their hand they usually close it
9 Hand-Eye Coordination This is an essential skill for many tasks in life.Newborns hand-eye coordination develops as their motor skills improve.By the end of the first year, they can move items from place to place with their hands.
10 ConclusionWith a stimulating environment, infants can develop normally and with ample opportunities.