2 Foreign policy-the strategies and goals that guide a nation’s relations with other groups in the world.
3 Long term goals of US foreign policy National securityMain goal of US foreign policy is to preserve the security of US.This goal determines how the US interacts with other nations and even its own citizens.
4 Free and open tradeMaintaining trade with other nations and preserving access to necessary national resources is important because a nation’s economic interests must be protected.
5 3. World Peace American leaders work for world peace because they believe it helps the nation avoid outside conflicts and aids in national security.
6 4. Promote democracy worldwide The US has worked to help citizens from other nations transition to democracy. Truman Doctrine-our nation’s resp. to assist those who are threatened by authoritarian/ regimes
7 5. Demonstrate concern for humanity The US has provided humanitarian assistance to other nations which accomplishes humanitarian goal as well as maintaining political stability in the world.
8 History of US foreign policy Until late 1800s, US foreign policy was based on isolationism-avoiding involvement in world affairs. “minding our own business”During the 20th century, foreign policy moved towards internationalism-belief that involvement in world affairs was necessary for national security
9 1898- US involvement in Spanish American War-1st move into international affairs. US works to free Cuba from Spanish rule. As a result, the US acquires territories for resources and new markets
10 WWI & WWIIWWI- US entered into war against Germany in 1917 and American troops were sent overseas to fight in Europe for first time.WWII-when war began in 1939, US remained neutral until Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor.
11 Cold War policyCW was a “war”of ideologies of American democracy/ capitalism vs. Soviet communism.Policy during CW was based primarily on containment-halt the expansion of communism.Policy of containment draws US into Korean War and Vietnam War.
12 post Cold War policyUS involved when its direct economic or political interests are at stake.Ex.: Persian Gulf War orKosovoSincePolicy of preemption-striking first against any threat of terrorism or states with weapons of mass destruction
13 Congress v. President in foreign policy Foreign policy powers are divided between the President and Congress. Sometimes the 2 branches battle over power.
14 Presidential role in foreign policy President is commander in chief of armed forcesPresident appoints ambassadors to foreign nationsPresidents make treaties (subject to Senate approval) and executive agreements-pacts b/w pres and leader of other nations that does not require Senate approvalPresidents appoint members to executive departments which handle foreign policy
15 executive groups that deal with foreign policy Cabinet—Secretary of defense & Secretary of stateNational Security Advisor—director of National Security CouncilCIA—Central Intelligence Agency-whose responsibility it is to gather and coordinate- information about other nations
16 Congress’s role in foreign policy Power to declare war (only 5 times in US history)—usually military action has been a resolution authorizing president to send in troopsPower to appropriate funds-”power of the purse”Power in treaty making-Senate must approve all treatiesPower to confirm presidential appointments to diplomatic posts
17 Foreign policy cabinet departments: Department of State- cabinet dept that handles all diplomatic foreign relations of USHeaded by the Secretary of State-John Kerry6 Secretaries of State have become presidentFunctions of State Dept include keeping president informed on diplomatic relations with other nations, negotiating treaties, and protecting Americans who are abroad.
18 embassies and consulates Embassies are official residences of ambassadors in foreign capitals. Their primary function is to make diplomatic communications b/w governments easier. Consulates are offices in major foreign cities, headed by a consul. Their primary function is to promote and protect American business interests in foreign nations and safeguard US travelers abroad.
20 passports v. visasA passport is document issued by the State Dept for citizens travelling abroad. With a passport, travelers are entitled to privileges and protection est by a treaty.Some countries require visas for entry. A visa is a document issued by a foreign govt allowing a traveler to enter.Most Americans can go anywhere on a passport, however, most visitors to the US need a visa to enter.
21 2. The Department of Defense supervises the armed forces of the US 2. The Department of Defense supervises the armed forces of the US. Headed by the Secretary of Defense—Chuck Hagel. The DOD is the largest executive department &is headquartered in the Pentagon in DC.
23 Joint Chiefs of Staff-group made up of the top-ranking officers of the armed forces. Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff is appointed by the President for a 2 year term. NSC, Pres., and Sec. of Defense rely heavily upon this group for military advice.
24 Military service-the US has used 2 methods to staff the armed forces: VolunteersConscription-mandatory military service, “draft. ” Nixon suspended the draft with an executive order in However, the law that created the Selective Service System was not repealed, which is why males must register with the draft board.