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Foreign policy Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "Foreign policy Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Foreign policy Chapter 14

2 Foreign policy-the strategies and goals that guide a nation’s relations with other groups in the world.

3 Long term goals of US foreign policy
National security Main goal of US foreign policy is to preserve the security of US. This goal determines how the US interacts with other nations and even its own citizens.

4 Free and open trade Maintaining trade with other nations and preserving access to necessary national resources is important because a nation’s economic interests must be protected.

5 3. World Peace American leaders work for world peace because they believe it helps the nation avoid outside conflicts and aids in national security.

6 4. Promote democracy worldwide The US has worked to help citizens from other nations transition to democracy. Truman Doctrine-our nation’s resp. to assist those who are threatened by authoritarian/ regimes

7 5. Demonstrate concern for humanity The US has provided humanitarian assistance to other nations which accomplishes humanitarian goal as well as maintaining political stability in the world.

8 History of US foreign policy
Until late 1800s, US foreign policy was based on isolationism-avoiding involvement in world affairs. “minding our own business” During the 20th century, foreign policy moved towards internationalism-belief that involvement in world affairs was necessary for national security

9 1898- US involvement in Spanish American War-1st move into international affairs. US works to free Cuba from Spanish rule. As a result, the US acquires territories for resources and new markets

10 WWI & WWII WWI- US entered into war against Germany in 1917 and American troops were sent overseas to fight in Europe for first time. WWII-when war began in 1939, US remained neutral until Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor.

11 Cold War policy CW was a “war”of ideologies of American democracy/ capitalism vs. Soviet communism. Policy during CW was based primarily on containment-halt the expansion of communism. Policy of containment draws US into Korean War and Vietnam War.

12 post Cold War policy US involved when its direct economic or political interests are at stake. Ex.: Persian Gulf War or Kosovo Since Policy of preemption-striking first against any threat of terrorism or states with weapons of mass destruction

13 Congress v. President in foreign policy
Foreign policy powers are divided between the President and Congress. Sometimes the 2 branches battle over power.

14 Presidential role in foreign policy
President is commander in chief of armed forces President appoints ambassadors to foreign nations Presidents make treaties (subject to Senate approval) and executive agreements-pacts b/w pres and leader of other nations that does not require Senate approval Presidents appoint members to executive departments which handle foreign policy

15 executive groups that deal with foreign policy
Cabinet—Secretary of defense & Secretary of state National Security Advisor—director of National Security Council CIA—Central Intelligence Agency-whose responsibility it is to gather and coordinate- information about other nations

16 Congress’s role in foreign policy
Power to declare war (only 5 times in US history)—usually military action has been a resolution authorizing president to send in troops Power to appropriate funds-”power of the purse” Power in treaty making-Senate must approve all treaties Power to confirm presidential appointments to diplomatic posts

17 Foreign policy cabinet departments:
Department of State- cabinet dept that handles all diplomatic foreign relations of US Headed by the Secretary of State-John Kerry 6 Secretaries of State have become president Functions of State Dept include keeping president informed on diplomatic relations with other nations, negotiating treaties, and protecting Americans who are abroad.

18 embassies and consulates
Embassies are official residences of ambassadors in foreign capitals. Their primary function is to make diplomatic communications b/w governments easier. Consulates are offices in major foreign cities, headed by a consul. Their primary function is to promote and protect American business interests in foreign nations and safeguard US travelers abroad.

19 US Embassy in Mexico Mexican embassy in DC

20 passports v. visas A passport is document issued by the State Dept for citizens travelling abroad. With a passport, travelers are entitled to privileges and protection est by a treaty. Some countries require visas for entry. A visa is a document issued by a foreign govt allowing a traveler to enter. Most Americans can go anywhere on a passport, however, most visitors to the US need a visa to enter.

21 2. The Department of Defense supervises the armed forces of the US
2. The Department of Defense supervises the armed forces of the US. Headed by the Secretary of Defense—Chuck Hagel. The DOD is the largest executive department &is headquartered in the Pentagon in DC.


23 Joint Chiefs of Staff-group made up of the top-ranking officers of the armed forces. Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff is appointed by the President for a 2 year term. NSC, Pres., and Sec. of Defense rely heavily upon this group for military advice.

24 Military service-the US has used 2 methods to staff the armed forces:
Volunteers Conscription-mandatory military service, “draft. ” Nixon suspended the draft with an executive order in However, the law that created the Selective Service System was not repealed, which is why males must register with the draft board.

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