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Foreign Policy and National Defense Chapter 17 Notes

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1 Foreign Policy and National Defense Chapter 17 Notes
American Citizenship Foreign Policy and National Defense Chapter 17 Notes

2 Section 1 Foreign Affairs and National Security

3 Isolationism to Internationalism
Domestic Affairs Events at home Foreign Affairs The nation’s relationships with other nations For the first 150 years, America maintained a foreign policy of isolationism A purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world The Past 70 years, America has maintained a policy of foreign engagement

4 Foreign Policy Defined
It is made up of all of the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries Diplomatic, military, commercial, etc. The President, by both constitutionality and tradition, has been the primary conductor of foreign policy

5 State Department Headed by the Secretary of State The Foreign Service
Ranks first among members of the president’s cabinet The Foreign Service Under international law every nation has the right of legation the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives Ambassadors An official representative of the United States appointed by the president to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy One Ambassador stationed at the capital of each state the United States recognizes

6 State Department (Con’t)
Special Diplomats Ambassadors to UN or NATO, or other international conference Passports Certificate issued by a government to its citizens who travel or live abroad Required now anytime you leave the boundaries of the United States (Even Mexico) Diplomatic Immunity Ambassadors are regularly granted diplomatic immunity They are not subject to the laws of the state to which they are accredited

7 The Defense Department
Civil Control of the Military Though the framers of the Constitution knew the importance of a strong defense, they also recognized the dangers of a strong defense Thus giving great powers over the military by the President and Congress Both publicly elected persons

8 The Defense Department (Con’t)
The Secretary of Defense Has Two Major Responsibilities The President’s chief aide and advisor in making and carrying out defense policy Operating Head of the Defense Department Stationed in the Pentagon Chief Military Aides Five members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff serve as the principal military advisors to the President, Department of Defense, and National Security Council

9 The Military Departments
Three military Departments fall under the Department of Defense The Department of the Army The Department of the Navy The Department of the Air Force

10 Section 2 Other Foreign and Defense Agencies

11 The CIA Central Intelligence Agency was created by Congress in 1947
Main task is to gather information and relay that info to the President It also conducts espionage Spying

12 Department of Homeland Security
Charged with the task of protecting the United States against terrorism

13 NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency created by Congress in 1958 Work ranges from basic research that focuses on origin, evolution, and structure of the universe to exploration of outer space Military is greatly used today, including GPS

14 The Selective Service System
Draft, also called conscription or compulsory military service Even today, soon after turning 18, males must register with the selective service

15 Section 3 American Foreign Policy Overview

16 Two New Principles Collective Security Deterrence
The forging of a world community in order to maintain internal peace and order Deterrence Strategy of maintaining the military might of the United States at so great a level that the very strength will deter, discourage, an attack on this country by any hostile power

17 Resisting Soviet Aggression
Cold War A period of more than 40 years during which relations between the two superpowers, US and Soviet Union, were at least tense and more often than not, distinctly hostile

18 Détente and the Return to Containment
In the 1970’s, President Nixon used a policy of détente in order to improve relations with the Soviet Union and China French term meaning “a relaxation of tensions”

19 Section 4 Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances

20 Foreign Aid Economic and military aid to other countries
Started as a US policy in the 1940’s after WWII

21 Security Alliances Over the last 5 decades, the United States has constructed a network of regional security alliances Agreements to take collective action to meet aggression in a particular part of the world NATO RIO Pact

22 The United Nations Formed at the United Nations Conference on International Organization, met in San Francisco in 1945 Permanent Headquarters are in New York City The Security Council Made up of 15 members 5 , United States, Britain, France, Russia, and China are permanent members 10 other nonpermanent members are appointed for 2 years by the General Assembly

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