Presentation on theme: "Foreign & Defense Policies. Discussion Questions: Why do you think the Founders intentionally divided responsibility for foreign affairs between president."— Presentation transcript:
Discussion Questions: Why do you think the Founders intentionally divided responsibility for foreign affairs between president and Congress? Why do you think they gave the power to declare war to Congress and not to the president? Why is the president and not a congressional committee or military general designated commander in chief? Discuss the doctrine of preemptive strike (also known as the Bush Doctrine) and consider the implications for how the United States might respond if a hostile nation, such as Iran or North Korea, threatened the country with nuclear weapons. Should the country wait until it is actually attacked before using military force? Or would America be justified in striking preemptively? What are the advantages and disadvantages of waiting until actual harm is done? Should the opinion of the UN play a role in the decision-making process? Why or why not? Should the United States purchase weapons manufactured by other countries if those weapons prove superior and cheaper? Each branch of the military purchases its own weapons systems, which sometimes leads to problems. Should the services be required to purchase the same merchandise when feasible? What reasons exist for not doing so? How is funding for the military tied to the perception of legitimacy, either for the organization or for its operations? Can Congress fully equip and supply the military while simultaneously criticizing its ongoing operations? Similarly, can Congress cut off funding for supplies and equipment for political purposes (for instance, to force the president to accede to its wishes) without appearing to question the legitimacy of the institution or the performance of servicemen and women?
Difference between Foreign & Defense Policies Foreign Policy- the strategies & procedures for dealing with other nations Purpose: maintain peaceful relations with other countries through diplomatic, military, or trade relations Defense policy- the role that the military establishment plays in providing for the defense of the nation
History of U.S. Foreign Policy The Foreign Policy Dance The Foreign Policy Dance
Agents of Foreign Policy The President Often considered the leader in foreign policy Powers derive from the Constitution Commander-in-chief, negotiating treaties, & appointing foreign ambassadors U.S. Department of State U.S. Department of State Major organization for carrying out foreign policy Reports directly to the President with advice Current Secretary of State: John Kerry The Department of Defense The Department of Defense Provides military information to the President Advises the president on troop movement, military installations, and weapon development Receives advice from the Joint Chiefs of Staff The National Security Council Part of the Executive Office of the President composed of President, VP, secretaries of state & defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff chairman, director of the CIA, and the President’s national security advisor The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Responsible for gathering secret information essential for national defense Congress Power to approve all treaties, nominations for ambassadors, declare war, and approve spending for national defense
Tools to Execute Foreign Policy Diplomacy Negotiations over issues between nations We often serve as diplomats for other countries Economic Aid The U.S. spends billions annually in economic assistance to other nations for humanitarian needs Technical Aid The U.S. sends teachers, engineers, and business leaders to foreign nations to help develop their infrastructures Military Intervention As a last resort, the U.S. uses military force to achieve its foreign policy goals
War Powers Act of 1973 Provisions 1. Only 60 day commitment of troops without declaration of war 2. All commitments reported within 48 hours Observance 1. No president has acknowledged constitutionality 2. Ford, carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton sent troops without explicit congressional authorization WWII Iraq
Current Issues in Foreign Policy Nuclear Proliferation How do we prevent possible enemies from gaining access to nuclear technology that might someday be used against the United States? Terrorism How does the U.S. defend itself against possible terror attacks? Managing Conflicts Abroad Should the U.S. do more to create alliances and agreements with other nations, or should we “go it alone”?
Food for Thought: Should our foreign policy be based more on American interests or human rights? American Interests Human Rights