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Introduction to Contemporary Geography © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Amy D'Angelo SUNY Oswego Lectures Chapter 13 Urban Patterns
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Land Uses in CBD of Wilkes-Barre, PA
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Concentric Zone Model According to the concentric zone model, created in 1923 by sociologist E. W. Burgess, a city grows outward from a central area in a series of five concentric rings, like the growth rings of a tree.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Concentric Zone Model Innermost zone – CBD Second ring – zone in transition Third ring – zone of working-class homes Fourth zone – middle-class families Commuter’s zone
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Sector Model According to the sector model, developed in 1939 by land economist Homer Hoyt, the city develops in a series of sectors. As a city grows, activities expand outward in a wedge, or sector, from the center.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Sector Model
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Multiple Nuclei Model According to the multiple nuclei model, a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve. Examples of these nodes include a port, neighborhood business center, university, airport, and park.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Multiple Nuclei Model
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Sectors in Dallas
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Multiple Nuclei in Dallas
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Sector Model in European Cities As in the United States, wealthier people in European cities cluster along a sector extending out from the CBD. In Paris, high-income residents moved from the royal palace at the Louvre west towards another royal palace at Versailles.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cities Since Independence Following independence, Latin American cities have grown in accordance with the sector and concentric zone models.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Definitions of St. Louis
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Metropolitan Statistical Area The U.S. Bureau of the Census has created a method of measuring the functional area of a city, known as the metropolitan statistical area (MSA). An MSA includes the following: 1. An urbanized area of at least 50,000 inhabitants. 2. The county within which the city is located. 3. Adjacent counties with a high population density and a large percentage of residents working in the central city’s county.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Micropolitan Statistical Areas The census has also designated smaller urban areas as micropolitan statistical areas (μSAs). These include an urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Overlapping Metropolitan Areas in Europe
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Annexation in Chicago
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 13.9 Suburban Sprawl In 1950, only 20 percent of Americans lived in suburbs. After more than a half-century of rapid suburban growth, 50 percent of Americans now live in suburbs. US suburbs are characterized by sprawl, which is the progressive spread of development over the landscape.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Peripheral Model of Urban Areas
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 13.10 Urban Transportation People do not travel aimlessly; their trips have a precise point of origin, destination, and purpose. Work related trips – 1/2 Shopping, social, and personal business – 1/4 Sprawl makes people more dependent on motor vehicles for access to work, shopping, and social activities.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Development of Urban Transportation Historically, people lived in crowded cities because they had to be within walking distance of shops and places of employment. Cities then built street railways (called trolleys, streetcars, or trams) and underground railways (subways) to accommodate commuters. These lines restricted suburban development to narrow ribbons within walking distance of the stations.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Public Transportation
KI 2: Where are people distributed within urban areas?
8 million people 18 million people Urbanized area: red (high density) Metropolitan area: Central city + Counties that commuters come from.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Karl Byrand, University of Wisconsin-Sheboygan Contemporary Human Geography, 2e Lectures Chapter 13 Urban Patterns.
Urban Models. Percent Urban Population Fig. 13-1: Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than in LDCs.
Urban Patterns AP Human Geography. Urban Geography Urban refers to highly developed areas where businesses, people, and industry cluster. Not limited.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. F4/27/12 Suburban Challenges (Ch – pp )
Chapter 13 Urban Patterns.
Urban Patterns Chapter 13 An Introduction to Human Geography
Classic Urban Models.
Ch. 13 Key Issue 2 Where Are People Distributed Within Urban Areas?
Urban Patterns. Warm-Up List 3 distinct problems of cities List 3 distinct problems in the suburbs:
Ch. 13: Urban Patterns Key Issue 1.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. W4/25/12 Distribution of People in Cities (Ch – pp )
Advanced World Geography
Urbanization process percentage of people living in urban areas increases rural to urban MDCs - urbanization is maxed out.
Human Geography – Urban Land Use & Planning Chapter 6
Urban Sprawl Where Will It End?.
Chapter 13 Urbanization. Two families in New Jersey Case Study on pg. 416 Just 10 kilometers away, a whole different life. Where do we see this in Connecticut?
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