2 UrbanizationUrbanization-the process by which the population of cities grows.Increasing percentage of people in cites1800 = 3%1850 = 6%1900 = 14%1950 = 30%2000 = 47%2008 = 51%¾ of MDCs, 2/5 of LDCs-- why?MDCs are now “fully urbanized”Percentage living in cities has greatly increased in LDCsUrbanization is:The number of ppl in citiesThe percentage of ppl in citiesThe land area occupied by cities
3 Urbanization Increasing number of people in cities MDCs have a higher percent of urban residents, but LDCs have more of the very large urban settlements (8 out of 10)Growth of cities used to be tied to IndustrializationIn LDCs, big cities are not connected to an increased in development levelsUrbanized Area: city plus continuous suburbsThe Industrial Revolution promoted urbanization in MDCs
5 Urban Settlements are difficult to define… Social differences:Louis Wirth:Large sizeDifferent social relationshipsHigh population densitySpecialization and competitionSocially heterogeneous peopleDiversity and lonelinessPhysical differences:Legal boundarySelf governing, taxesContinuously built up>1000 people/mileFunctional areaArea of influenceMay be beyond legal boundariesTV stations, newspapers, sports teams
7 Urban Models 3 models explaining where people settle in cities Based on Chicago—prairie city
8 Concentric Zone Model E. W. Burgess 1923 Cities grow outward from a central area in a series of ringsSize and width of rings may vary from city to city but order stays the same.CBD Zone in Transition working class homes middle class homes commuter zone
9 Concentric Zone ModelFig. 13-5: In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD.
10 Sector Model Homer Hoyt 1939 City develops in sectors, not rings Certain areas of the city are more attractive for different activities, as a city grows these expand in a wedge
11 Sector ModelFig. 13-6: In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors extending out from the CBD.
12 Multiple Nuclei Model Harris and Ullman 1945 City is a complex structure that includes more than one center for activities to revolve around.i.e. a port, neighborhood business center, university, airport, parksDifferent nodes attract and repel
13 Multiple Nuclei ModelFig. 13-7: The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers, around which different people and activities cluster.