Presentation on theme: "Urban Patterns AP Human Geography. Urban Geography Urban refers to highly developed areas where businesses, people, and industry cluster. Not limited."— Presentation transcript:
Urban Geography Urban refers to highly developed areas where businesses, people, and industry cluster. Not limited to big cities….also includes sub-urban areas. Where are people and activities distributed in urban areas? What patterns develop in urban areas?
Central Business District (CBD) Aka “Downtown” Less than 1% of land area High % of services, public institutions High accessibility Focal point of transportation
Who locates in the CBD? Retailers w/ high threshold ◦Ex. Department stores ◦Now replaced by malls Retailers w/ high range ◦Specialists, unique shops Retailers serving downtown workers ◦Office supplies, coffee shops, dry cleaning, fast food restaurants
Characteristics of the CBD Large public buildings such as libraries, churches, stations and town halls. Specialty shops and branches of major department stores. Movie theatres, clubs and theatres. Very little housing, but often hotels. Little or no industry. Offices and other professional buildings. High pedestrian levels and the greatest parking restrictions. Geographical center of the settlement. Area with the highest land value. Well connected by public transport, with large numbers of passengers. High traffic levels.
Land Use in CBD’s Land is expensive in CBD’s Tokyo, London, NYC High cost of land forces vertical and underground expansion Skyscrapers Underground cities
Worlds Most Expensive Land Cost of Land per square meter 1. Monte Carlo, Monaco – $47,578 2. Moscow, Russia – $20,853 3. London, England – $20,756 4. Tokyo, Japan – $17,998 5. Hong Kong – $16,125 6. New York, USA – $14,898 7. Paris, France – $12,122 8. Singapore – $9,701 9. Rome, Italy – $9,166 10. Mumbai, India – $9,163 Land in LDC’s might be closer to $3-15 per square meter Rural land is cheaper than urban land
Not Found in CBD’s Industry ◦Have relocated to suburban areas Old industrial areas (harbors/ piers) are now tourist attractions Ex. Navy Pier Residents ◦Fluctuation: originally rich mansions and crowded apts., then suburbs, now “empty nesters” return in search of nightlife, entertainment, etc.
Urban Models 3 models, all developed in Chicago Why Chicago? ◦Flat (prairie) ◦Few physical features that interrupt growth (except Lake Michigan) Predict how cities will develop Where will different groups of people live in urban areas?
Concentric Zone Model E.W. Burgess City grows outward in a series of rings 5 Rings ◦1. CBD ◦2. Transition (industry/ poor housing) ◦3. Working class ◦4. Better homes ◦5. Commuters/ suburbs