Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Urbanization. Two families in New Jersey Case Study on pg. 416 Just 10 kilometers away, a whole different life. Where do we see this in Connecticut?"— Presentation transcript:
Two families in New Jersey Case Study on pg. 416 Just 10 kilometers away, a whole different life. Where do we see this in Connecticut? In most places in the world spatial patterns are reversed. Higher status people live near the center of the city while lower status live in the suburbs.
This just sums up Urbanization https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNMao5 AQlUk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRBLnth 4oSg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNMao5 AQlUk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRBLnth 4oSg
Key Issue 1 Where have Urban Areas Grown? In 1800 only 3% of the world’s population lived in cities, and only one city, London had more than a million people. Today 50% of the world’s population live in cities, and over 400 cities have at least one million people.
Urbanization Has two dimensions - the number of people living in cities has increased - the percentage of people living in cities has increased. The distinction between the two factors is important, because they occur for different reasons and have different global distributions.
How can the percentage of people living in cites be a measurement of the development of the country?
Different reasons for moving to the city today. Rapid growth in cities on the LDC’s is a reversal of the historical trend in Western Europe and North America created by the Ind. Revolution and is not a measure of an improved level of development. – Migration from the countryside fuels 40% of the change – 60% of the change results from high NIRs.
Social difference between Urban and Rural Settlements. The city has three characteristics: Large Size- You can only know a small percentage of the other residents. High Density- Competition to occupy the same territory and the stronger group dominates. Social Heterogeneity- greater variety of people, people have a greater freedom to pursue a unique profession, sexual orientation, or cultural interest.
Physical Definitions of Urban Settlements Legal Definition Urbanized area surrounded by suburbs with over 1000 people per square mile (Guilford is about 440 per square mile) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) 1. Central city with a pop. of at least 50,000. 2. The county within which the city is located. 3. Adjacent counties with a high population density and a large percentage of residents working in the central city’s county.
Consolidated Metropolitan statistical Area (CMSA) Two adjacent MSAs with overlapping commuting patterns. Example New York, Northern New Jersey, Long Island Within a CMSA, a MSA that exceeds a population of 1 million would be considered a primary metropolitan statistical area (PMSA).
Key Issue 2 Where Are People Distributed Within Urban Areas? Three models E.W. Burgess - Concentric Zone Model Homer Hoyt – Sector Model Harris and Ullman – Multiple nuclei model good explanation of different views on pg. 425
Key Issue 3 Why do inner cities have distinctive problems? Physical Problems Social Problems Economic Problems
1. Physical Problems (Process of Deterioration) Most built before 1940 Filtering- subdivision of houses as lower income people move in. Rapidly declining populations. Large immigrant groups a century ago, give way to smaller groups today. Redlining-some banks engage in the process of drawing lines on a map to identify areas where they will not loan money.
1. Physical Problems (Urban Renewal) Urban Renewal- Cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, and build new roads and utilities. The land is then turned over to private developers or public agencies. Public Housing – is reserved for low income households, who must pay 30% of their income for rent. U.S. 2% of all housing, In U.K. more than 1/3 of all housing.
1. Physical Problems (Urban Renewal) Renovated Housing Gentrification- The process of middle-class people moving into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovating the houses. http://www.historicproperties.com/ http://www.historicproperties.com/
2. Social Problems (Underclass) Underclass-many city residents are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems. – Lack of Job Skills – Homeless
2. Social Problems (Culture of Poverty) Unwed mothers give birth to 2/3 of the babies in inner-city neighborhoods, 90 % of children in the inner city only live with one parent. Crime Ethnic and Racial Segregation http://demographics.coopercenter.org/DotMa p/index.html http://demographics.coopercenter.org/DotMa p/index.html
3. Economic Problems Concentration of low-income residents in inner-city neighborhoods of central cities has produced financial problems. Low tax support Annexation- residents must support this is not done today because most would not support joining a city.
Key Issue 4 Why do suburbs have distinctive problems? Since 1950 population has declined by one half in the central cities of: Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Pittsburgh and St. Louis by one third in Baltimore, Boston, Cincinnati, Dayton, Louisville, Minneapolis, Newark, Philadelphia, Rochester, Syracuse and Washington Where?....Suberbs
The Peripheral Model Density Gradient – The number of houses will per unit of land diminishes as distance from the center city increases. Changes in Density Gradient – 1. Fewer people in the city center. – 2. Trend towards less density. (at the same time density has increased on the periphery through construction of condos/apartments…
Suburban Sprawl The suburban development process pg. 439