Presentation on theme: "Urbanization process percentage of people living in urban areas increases rural to urban MDCs - urbanization is maxed out."— Presentation transcript:
1 urbanizationprocesspercentage of people living in urban areas increasesrural to urbanMDCs - urbanization is maxed out
2 In Europe – wealthier people tend to live in the inner city. Compared to the United States, where are poor families in European cities more likely to live.Clustered in suburbsIn Europe – wealthier people tend to live in the inner city.Maintain the medieval charm in CBDsSuburbs – many immigrants in EuropeBuild structures vertically to preserve rural areas.
3 Elements of urbanization Land area occupied by urban areas (worldwide one percent)Number of people living in urban areasPercentage of peopleLDCs - higher total numbers, MDCs – higher percentage
4 What event promoted urbanization? Industrial revolutionLess opportunities on farms because of improved technologyMore opportunities in factories
5 How many of the world’s largest urban areas are in MDCs? 2Large CitiesFig. 13-2: Cities with 3 million or more people. Most of the largest cities are now in LDCs.
6 The process of legally adding land to cities in the United States annexationSuburbs do not allow central cities to annex additional land today.Lack of annexation leads to economic problems for major cities.
7 Growth of ChicagoFig : Chicago grew rapidly in the 19th century through annexation. In the 20th century the major annexation was for O’Hare Airport. The city of Chicago covers only a portion of the Chicago metropolitan statistical area (inset).
8 The city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is an urbanized area.
9 In the U.S., what definition of a city covers the largest land area? metropolitan statistical areacannot be accurately measuredhas a central city with at least 50,000 people
10 St. Louis Metropolitan Area Fig. 13-3: The metropolitan area of St. Louis is spread over several counties and two states. It is also a diversified trade center, due to its position on the Mississippi River.
11 a higher social heterogeneity in urban settlements Why would a person feel lonely and isolated in a crowd in an urban area?a higher social heterogeneity in urban settlements
12 According to Louis Wirth, urban areas are more likely than rural areas to have larger size.higher density.more heterogeneity.
13 What is an adjacent, overlapping MSA? megalopolis
14 filtering major problem of inner cities houses are subdivided waves of lower-income peopleit can lead to abandonment
15 The Community Reinvestment Act has essentially made this illegal. The process by which banks designate an area within which they refuse to lend money for improvements isredlining.The Community Reinvestment Act has essentially made this illegal.
16 blockbustingA process by which real estate agents convince owners to sell their homes.
17 Public housing is low-income government-owned housing. Rent – 30% of income
18 The process converting a neighborhood from low-income to middle-class is gentrification.This is not popular with advocates forlow-income peopleThis process can price them out of the neighborhood.
20 The zone of transition in U.S. cities typically contain the following. warehousespublic housinggentrified buildings
21 moving expenses and rent increases are paid by the government. According to U.S. law, when a family is forced to move by a city to relocatemoving expenses and rent increases are paid by the government.This may happen if a city claims property through imminent domain.
22 Underclass concentrated in the inner city trapped in a cycle of economic and social problemslack job skills for basic jobsCulture of poverty leads to various crimes such as drug use and gangs.Compared to whites, African Americans are more likely to be clustered in the inner city.
23 Why would American city governments reduce services? to deal with financial problemsThese reductions could be in services such as police and fire departments as well as garbage collection.
24 The recent trend in density gradients in urban areas. a reduction in the differences in densities found in urban areas
25 Cleveland, Ohio Density Gradient, 1900 Fig a: In 1900 population was highly clustered in and near the central business district.
26 Cleveland, Ohio Density Gradient, 1930 Fig b: By 1930, population had begun to spread outward, leaving the core less dense.
27 Cleveland, Ohio Density Gradient, 1960 Fig c: Outward movement had accelerated by 1960, leaving the original CBD core as the least densely populated area of the city.
28 Cleveland, Ohio Density Gradient, 1990 Fig d: By population was spread over a much larger area, there was less variation among rings, and the lowest densities were near the CBD.
29 The development of new housing sites not contiguous to the existing built-up area is referred to as sprawl.Compared to the United Kingdom, the amount of sprawl in the U.S. isgreater.
30 Suburban Development in the U.S. and U.K. Fig : New housing in the U.K. is likely to be in planned new towns, while in the U.S. growth occurs in discontinuous developments.
31 British cities are surrounded by open space known as greenbelts.
32 Northampton, United Kingdom There is usually a sharp boundary between an urban area in the U.K., such as Northampton, and the surrounding rural area.
33 What was the purpose of busing in American cities? promote racially integrated school
34 A legal form of segregation in U.S. cities is achieved through zoning.
35 Where children live determine their access to schools….
36 People are attracted to suburbs in part because suburbs are characterized by private landsurrounding the house.
37 Where does the largest percentage of the U.S. population live? suburbs
38 The largest numbers of trips are made in the suburbs for the purpose of going to work.
39 How did the United States government encourage the use of cars? building interstate highways
40 What advantage does public transportation offer over the private automobile? energy efficiency
41 rapid transitIs the major exception to the decline of public transportation in the U.S.
42 Tram Line in Brussels Why is public transit more expensive in Europe? The government subsidizes it.Tram Line in BrusselsA Line 92 tram on the Rue Royale in Brussels.
43 Suburban residents without cars may suffer a hardship In recent years urban residents are more likely to shop in suburban malls.Attraction of mallsplace to meet friendssheltered environmentsgenerous parkingfrequent concerts and exhibitionsSuburban residents without cars may suffer a hardship
44 Concentric Zone ModelFig. 13-5: In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD.
45 Best housing – corridor from downtown to edge of city Sector ModelFig. 13-6: In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors extending out from the CBD.Best housing – corridor from downtown to edge of city
46 Airport likely to attract nearby industry Multiple Nuclei ModelFig. 13-7: The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers, around which different people and activities cluster.Airport likely to attract nearby industry
47 Higher income people around the world tend to live close to the CBD. The distribution of different types of people in an urban area is explained by a social area analysis.The multiple nuclei theory best explains why people with different educational experiences are attracted to different neighborhoods.Higher income people around the world tend to live close to the CBD.North America is the exception
48 When urban models developed in Chicago are applied to other countries around the world, one conclusion is the poorer people are located in different areas.Squatter settlements are on the periphery of cities and are made up of ramshackle houses.
49 The design of roads in LDCs are more than likely built during the colonial era. Fès (Fez), Morocco