Warm-Up List 3 distinct problems of cities 1. 2. 3. List 3 distinct problems in the suburbs: 1. 2. 3.
Urbanization – The process whereby an increasing percentage of people live in an urban area Basic Elements of Urbanization: Increase in the number ofand percentage of people living in urban settlements. Increase in the land area occupied by urban settlements.
The Industrial Revolution promoted urbanization. Of the ten largest urban areas in the world, two are in More Developed Countries today The change to LDCs dominating the list does not stem from improved development. People are migrating from the countryside even though jobs are not available and they have a high natural increase rate.
According to Louis Wirth, urban areas are more likely than rural areas to have larger size (don’t know everyone). higher density (specialization). more heterogeneity (more tolerant of diversity). Higher social heterogeneity in urban settlements means that you may feel lonely and isolated in a crowd (surrounded by people who don’t care about them).
Urbanized area- The city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs Metropolitan Statistical Area- definition of a city that covers the largest land area, created by the Census, based on counties Megalopolis refers to adjacent, overlapping Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Best example: Boston to Washington “Boswash corridor”- one continuous urban complex
Three Models of Urbanization 1. Concentric Zone Model Created in 1923 by E.W. Burgess States that a city grows outward from a central area in a series of RINGS. Same order of rings in each city although size varies.
Concentric Zone Model Zone 1:CBD (nonresidential activities) Zone 2: Zone of Transition (Industry and Low Quality Housing) Zone 3: Zone of Independent Workers’ Homes (stable working- class families) Zone 4: Zone of Better Residences (Newer, more spacious homes for middle class families) Zone 5: Commuter’s Zone (people who choose to live far out- not part of the city limits)
Sector Model 2. Sector Model *Homer Hoyt created it in 1939 *A city develops in a series of sectors, NOT RINGS Development begins in certain areas of the city for various reasons. Then as a city grows it expands outward in a WEDGE or SECTOR from the center
Sector Model Sector 1: CBD Sector 2: Transportation and Industry Sector 3: Low-class residential Sector 4: Middle-class residential Sector 5: High-class residential
Multiple Nuclei Model 3. Multiple Nuclei Model *Created by Harris and Ullman in 1945 *Believes that cities are complex and include more than one center. A city consists of a collection of nodes around which certain types of people or activities cluster, while incompatible activities will avoid clustering in the same location.
Multiple Nuclei Model 1. CBD 2. Light Manufacturing 3 Low-class residential 4. Middle-class residential 5. High-class residential 6. Heavy manufacturing 7. Outlying Business District 8. Residential Suburb 9. Industrial Suburb
Critics of the Models Too simple They Fail to consider the variety of reasons that lead people to select residential locations All based on conditions in cities between WWI and WWII However, if you combine the models it does help to explain where different types of people live in a city
Cities around the World Europe: Like the U.S. the wealthy cluster along a sector extending out from the CBD Europe: Unlike the U.S. wealthy Europeans still live in the inner-cities (upper-class sector) Europe: Today, low income people are less likely to live in inner-cities and now live on the outskirts of European cities
LCDS Latin America: People with high incomes cluster in the center of the city for greater access to services THIS IS A LOT LIKE EUROPE… hmmm. Many LDC countries have cities set up like European cities due to colonization by European Countries.
Squatter Settlements- LDCs Poor immigrants to urban areas camp on the land in primitive shelters
Problems in Inner Cities Filtering- The process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to renting to low-income people to eventualabandonment redlining- A process by which banks designate an area within which they refuse to lend money for improvements blockbusting- A process by which real estate agents convince white owners to sell their houses Public Housing is low-income government-owned housing
BIGGEST VOCAB WORD OF THE CHAPTER!!!!!! *****Gentrification- A process of converting a neighborhood from low-income to middle- class******
The zone in transition in U.S. cities typically contains: -warehouses -gentrified buildings -public housing According to U.S. law, when a family is forced by a city to relocate moving expenses and rent increases are paid by the government.
Things you may already know.. In U.S. cities, the underclass is clustered in inner-city neighborhoods. The underclass is characterized in part by high rates of drug addiction. U.S. central cities face fiscal problems and many times reduce services Compared to whites, African Americans in U.S. cities are more likely to be
Suburbs Peripheral Model- Shows an urban area to be the inner city tied together with suburbs and businesses by a beltway Edge Cities- nodes around the beltway that have office parks, shopping malls, etc. Density Gradient- number of houses per unit of land diminishes as distance from the center city increases.
Problems with Suburbs URBAN SPRAWL- progressive spread of development over the landscape in a non- continuous manner. Opposite is SMART GROWTH- laws to limit urban sprawl and preserve farmland (no new highways until areas are filled in) RUSH HOUR- four consecutive 15-minute periods that have the heaviest traffic TOO MANY LOCAL GOVERNMENTS makes it difficult to solve problems Public Transportation in general has a downward trend while RAPID TRANSIT is on the rise