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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. F4/27/12 Suburban Challenges (Ch. 13.4 – pp. 424-437)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. I. Urban Expansion A. Annexation –Process of legally adding land area to a city Common in late 19 th & early 20 th C. –Received better urban services Less common today – prefer local services B. Defining urban settlements 1. The city – a legal entity –Local gov’t system w/ fixed boundaries –Generally population has declined since 1950 – why? –Growth of central cities – city surrounded by suburbs 2. Urbanized areas – a continuously built-up area –Difficult to define –City and all contiguous built-up suburbs w/ specific density (1K ppl./mi.)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Urban Growth & Annexation over time – Chicago
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. I. Urban Expansion B. Defining urban settlements (cont.) 3. Metropolitan areas – a functional area Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) –Specific statistical area – cities of 50K or more & includes people in surrounding coutnies that work in city »Based on counties – census data available »366 MSAs as of 2009 –Similar to old standard metropolitan stat. area (SMSAs) –Micropolitan statistical areas (mSAs) – cities of 10K-50K »US has 574 –Core based statistical areas (CBSAs) – combo of MSAs & mSAs –Combined statistical areas (CSAs) – many mSAs are tied to MSAs – 124 in US –Primary census statistical areas (PCSAs) – CSA + remaining MSAs & mSAs = PCSAs
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. City, Urbanized Area, and MSA of St. Louis
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. I. Urban Expansion C. Local government fragmentation Little communication & coordination among local gov’t Council of government – cooperative agency of several local areas to oversee common planning (roads, etc.) –Ex.: Consolidations of city and county governments – Indianapolis, Miami –Ex.: Federations - Toronto D. Overlapping Metropolitan Areas Combination of MSAs among regions –Area belongs to several MSAs megalopolis – “great city” – Boston to Washington corridor (“Boswash”) –Other ex: midwest – Chicago to Pittsburgh; CA to Tijuana; Ruhr valley (Ger.); Tokaido (Japan)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. II. Peripheral Model Overview Created by Chauncey Harris (multiple nuclei) peripheral model – urban area w/ other nodes in surrounding suburban areas tied by beltway Edge cities – nodes of consumer or business services on beltway –A. Density gradient –Number of houses diminish w/ distance from center of city –B. Cost of suburban sprawl Spread of development over surrounding area –Need new roads & utilities, construction –Loss of agricultural land –greenbelts – rings of open space (common in Europe) –Smart growth – preservation of agricultural land w/ growth
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Density Gradient - Cleveland Figure 13-23
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. III. Suburban Segregation –A. Residential Segregation Areas often informally segregated due to costs –socio-economic segregation –zoning ordinances – prevent residential & commercial areas –B. Suburbanization of Businesses 1. Suburbanization of Retailing –Growth of malls & shopping centers 2. Suburbanization of Factories & Offices –Attracted to larger spaces, cheaper lands, access to highways
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Suburban Stress
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. IV. Transportation and Suburbanization –A. Motor Vehicles 95+ % of all trips in US by car Most traveling done during rush hour –B. Public Transit 1. Advantages of public transit –Transit travelers take up less space –Cheaper, less pollutant, more energy efficient than an automobile –Suited to move large number of people to small area 2. Public transit in the United States –Used primarily for rush-hour workers to/from CBD –esp. NYC, Bos, SF, DC, Chi, Phi –Small cities have minimal use –Most Americans prefer to commute by car
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Subway and Tram Lines in Brussels, Belgium
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The End. Up next: Resource Issues
The Growth (and Decline?) of the Suburbs
8 million people 18 million people Urbanized area: red (high density) Metropolitan area: Central city + Counties that commuters come from.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Karl Byrand, University of Wisconsin-Sheboygan Contemporary Human Geography, 2e Lectures Chapter 13 Urban Patterns.
Urban Models. Percent Urban Population Fig. 13-1: Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than in LDCs.
Chapter 13 Urban Patterns.
Urban Patterns Chapter 13 An Introduction to Human Geography
The Growth (and Decline) of the Suburbs
North America: The Human Landscape Current News and Weather Current News and Weather Finish Slides Finish Slides Environmental Issues Environmental Issues.
Classic Urban Models.
Unit Seven: Cities and Urban Land Use Advanced Placement Human Geography Session 7.
Urban Patterns. Warm-Up List 3 distinct problems of cities List 3 distinct problems in the suburbs:
Ch. 13: Urban Patterns Key Issue 1.
Chapter 13 Urban Patterns
13-3,4 Issues of Inner Cities and Suburbs Compare/Contrast.
Why Do Suburbs Have Distinctive Problems?
13 -4 Suburbs. I. The Peripheral Model (North America Only)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. W4/25/12 Distribution of People in Cities (Ch – pp )
KI 13-3 Why Do Inner Cities Face Distinctive Challenges? Inner-city physical issues? Most significant = ___________ __________ (built prior to 1940)
Urbanization process percentage of people living in urban areas increases rural to urban MDCs - urbanization is maxed out.
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