2 Three models of urban structure: Concentric Zone modelSector ModelMultiple Nuclei ModelUse of the models outside North America:European citiesLDC’s
3 A. Concentric Zone Model 1. Ernest Burgess (1920s): depicts use of urban land as a set of concentric rings- each ring devoted to a different land use (studied Chicago)
4 2. Concentric Zones:Zone I: Central Business District (CBD) that is the most accessible zone where most of the tertiary employment is locatedZone II: Zone of Transition where many industrial activities locate (nearby labor, markets, transport terminals like ports & rail)Zone III: Zone of Independent Workers is used by some industrial activities in inner cities and ethnic enclaves- contains the poorest segment of the urban populationZone IV: Zone of Better Residences is dominated by the working class (often second generation immigrants)Zone V: Commuter Zone represents higher quality suburban housing linked with higher commuting costs
6 Cleveland, Ohio The density gradient in Cleveland shows the expansion of densepopulation outward from the citycenter over time.
7 Social Area Analysis: Percent Renters IN Indianapolis, IN The distribution of renters in Indianapolis illustrates the concentric zone model
8 3. Concentric Zone Weaknesses: too simpledeveloped for American citiescars uncommon at time (horses & streetcars)assumes reliance on public transitlots of spatial differences in terms of ethnic & social patterns
10 B. Sector Model study done in 1939 by Homer Hoyt in Chicago land use NOT random: defined by functional sectoral wedges- transportation “corridors” impact land uses- rail lines, major roads, public transport create“sectors”
11 THE Hoyt “SeCTOR MODEL” In his model, Hoyt is taking into account differences in accessibility and, therefore, in land values along transportation routes
12 Indianapolis: Household Income The distribution of high income households in Indianapolisis an example of a sector model.
13 C. Multiple Nuclei Model the Harris & Ullman Multi-Nuclei Model (1945) looks at a city as being multi-nucleated with a downtown center & satellite centers on the peripherypresence of many competing decentralized centersreflects influence of automobileFive areas:1. CBD2. Wholesaling & light manufacturing area3. Heavy industrial area4. Residential areas5. Outlying suburban areas