Presentation on theme: "“…the power of speech, to stir men’s blood.” -- William Shakespeare"— Presentation transcript:
1 “…the power of speech, to stir men’s blood.” -- William Shakespeare Unit 14: Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking (Chapter 16 & 17)“…the power of speech, to stir men’s blood.”-- William Shakespeare
2 Speeches to Persuade Influence listeners’ points of view or behavior. Speaker asks audience to make a choice, does not simply inform the audience.Speaker not only educates, but advocates.
4 Persuasion DefinedProcess of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values or behaviors.Attitudes: likes or dislikesBeliefs: what is regarded as true or falseValues: enduring ideas of right/wrongBehaviors: actions displayedAttitudes: Most likely to changeValues: Most difficult to change
5 How Persuasion Works THE CLASSICAL RHETORIC APPROACH Artistotle’s Rhetoric -- earliest discussion of speechmakingRhetoric: process of discovering the available means of persuasion.If the goal is to persuade: select symbols to change attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors.Use ethos, logos, pathos.
6 Three Methods of Persuasion (Classical) Ethos: creating audience trust and believability through ethics, character & concern for the audience.Logos: rational & logical arguments, through sound evidence.Pathos: emotions that may involve stories, pictures and music.Ethos, logos & pathos motivate people.
7 PersuasionClassical Rhetoric crafts persuasive message from standpoint of the speaker.The Contemporary Approach describes how audience members interpret persuasive messages.
8 The Contemporary ELM Approach Elaboration Likelihood ModelExplains how people interpret persuasive messages.People focus (elaborate) on information given.Process information directly (logos).Process indirectly (ethos or pathos).
9 ELM APPROACH Direct Persuasion Route -- Logos Audience considers the underlying logos or logic of the message.Considers the facts and then makes a thoughtful decision.Indirect Persuasion Route-- Ethos or PathosPersuasion by indirect factors -- music, reactions to salesperson.
10 How to Motivate Listeners DissonanceListener NeedsPositive MotivationNegative Motivation
11 Using Dissonance People seek consistency & balance. When unhappy, people change attitudes, beliefs, values or behaviors.Cognitive Dissonance: mental discomfort, lock of mental harmony or agreementSpeakers need to be ethical when choosing messages that create dissonance.
13 How Listeners Cope with Dissonance Discredit the source of information.Refocus on parts of the message not creating dissonance. Reinterpret message to hear what they want to.Seek new information to prove speaker’s ideas wrong.Stop listening; tune out.Change attitudes, beliefs, values or actions to reduce dissonance.
15 How to Motivate Listeners: Use Listener Needs People change attitudes, beliefs, values or actions to restore needs.Maslow: humans are motivated by a variety of needs.Persuasion occurs when listeners become convinced that changes will satisfy their needs.
18 How to Motivate Listeners: Use Positive Motivation Good things will happen if listeners follow speaker’s advice.Emphasizes that positive values will be maintained or restored.Emphasizes benefits & features.Benefit: a good result that creates a positive feeling for listener; appealing to emotions.Feature: a rational cognitive explanation appealing to logic.
19 How to Motivate Listeners: Use Negative Motivation Bad things will happen if speaker’s advice not followed.Fear appeals are common.Threats to loved ones work better.Fear appeals work better when speaker credibility is higher.Fear appeals more successful if listeners believe the threat is real.As fear appeals intensify, so do chances of success.
22 How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech Consider your audienceSelect & narrow your topicDetermine your purposeDevelop your central and main ideas.
23 Consider the AudienceConsider audience diversity -- don’t design a persuasive message using strategies effective only for your culture.Remember ethical responsibilitiesDon’t fabricate evidence to frighten.Don’t create dissonance using information that is not true.Don’t tell people only what they want to hear.
24 Selecting & Narrowing Your Topic Do you sincerely feel strongly about it?Does it appeal to listeners’ passions?Is it an important topic?
25 PERSUASIVE STRATEGIES Establish CredibilityUse Logic & Evidence to Persuade
26 Develop Central & Main Ideas Proposition -- statement with which you want the audience to agree.Proposition of Fact -- focuses on whether something is true or false.When women joined the military, the quality of the military improved.Global warming is not occurring in our atmosphere.
27 Central & Main IdeasProposition of Value -- Listeners must judge the worth or importance of something.It is wrong to turn away immigrants.A private-school education is more valuable than a public school education.
28 Central & Main IdeasProposition of Policy -- Advocates a specific actionSenior citizens should pay for more of their medical costs.The G&T Program should have a full-time coordinator.
31 Types of ReasoningINDUCTIVE -- Using specific examples to reach a general conclusion.ExampleStudents are sneezing. (specific)Professors are canceling classes. (specific)The clinic has long waiting lines. (specific)There must be a flu on campus. (general)
32 Types of Reasons ANALOGY Makes a comparison between two things.
33 Types of Reasoning DEDUCTIVE Start with general claim and then move towards specific conclusion.All tough drug laws introduced in medium-sized communities result in diminished drug-related crimes.San Marcos, Texas is a medium-sized community.San Marcos should institute tough drug laws.
34 Types of Reasoning CAUSAL Relating events to show connections. Cause to effect or effect to cause.
35 Avoid Faulty Reasoning FALLACIESCasual -- no real connectionBandwagon -- Everyone doing it.Hasty Generalization -- Since my niece is failing, city schools are bad.Ad Hominem -- Personal attachRed Herring -- Changing the subject to distractMisplaced Authority -- Jessica Simpson says McMillan trucks are best.Non Sequitor -- Ideas do not follow.
36 Using Emotion to Persuade Use details that help listeners visualize.Use emotion-arousing words -- freedom, mommy.Delivery should reflect emotions.Use pictures or images.Use appropriate similes & metaphors.
37 Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages State your strongest arguments first.Do not bury key arguments in the middle.Save action calls for the end.Consider presenting both sides of issue.State and refute counterarguments.