5 Goals of Persuasive Speaking Encourage audience members to change their opinionsAsk for something from the audience- their agreement or change of behavior- instead of giving them information.
6 Persuasive strategies: Establish credibilityUse logicSupport your view with evidenceUse emotionState problem and your solution clearlyResources: p. 375 & pp in the book
7 Adapting to Audience Attitudes Three different types of audiences for persuasive speeches:-audiences that agree with you-audiences that disagree with you-neutral audiencesThe speaker has to understand why the audience disagrees in order to adapt their message.Example: An audience of homeowners may agree that their property taxes are too high, whereas a group of college students may support more taxes for higher education.
8 Strategies for Agreeing Audiences: Aim to strengthen existing attitudes and behaviors.Present new information to remind audience members why they agree with you.Strengthen resistance to opposing arguments.Excite the audience’s emotions by using and examples and stories.Provide a personal role model and course of action by telling them what you have done, and how they can do the same.
9 Strategies for Disagreeing Audiences: Set reasonable goals and don’t expect radical changes in opinions and behavior.Find common ground with a belief, value, or opinion that you and your audience share.Example: Even smokers and nonsmokers may agree that smoking should be prohibited on school grounds.Accept and adapt to differences of opinion by acknowledging the legitimacy of their opinions.Use fair and respected evidenceBuild your personal credibility to help achieve your purpose.
10 Strategies for Neutral Audiences: Persuade the uninformed by:-gaining their attention and interest-providing informationPersuade the unconcerned by:-giving them a reason to care-presenting relevant information and evidencePersuade the adamantly undecided by:-acknowledging both sides of the argument-providing new information-emphasizing the strength of arguments on one side of the issue
11 Characteristics of credibility: Trustworthiness – being believable and honestDynamism – being perceived as energeticCharisma – characteristic of a talented, charming, and attractive speaker
12 How to establish credibility: AppearanceEye contact with the audienceDescribe your credentials (briefly)Establish common ground with the publicSupport your argument with evidenceBe well organized in your speakingPresent well-delivered (prepared) speech
13 Use logic and evidence: Inductive reasoning – use specific examples to reach general, probable conclusionsReasoning by analogyusing comparison to predict how something will turn out
14 Use logic and evidence: Deductive reasoning – reasoning from a general statement to reach specific conclusion.Casual reasoning – presentation of two or more events that are somehow connected, focusing on the fact that one event may have caused the other one(s).
15 Forms of Persuasive Proof Logical- Are your arguments reasonable? Does your presentation make sense?Emotional- Did you use the audience’s joy, fear, anger, etc. to strengthen your argument?Personal- Can you establish and rely on your credibility? Does the audience see your character as charismatic and competent?Narrative- Are there stories, sayings, and symbols that address the values and beliefs of the audience?
16 How to support your reasoning: FactsInferences – conclusions based on available evidence, or partial informationExamples – to support factsOpinionsStatistics
17 Direct or Indirect Persuasion Use direct persuasion if audience members are highly interested and able to think critically. Research and logic are more effective with this approach.Use indirect persuasion when the audience is less involved. Rely on interest factors such as stories, humor, and good examples.
18 Tips for Persuasive Speeches Use persuasive evidence that is novel, believable, and dramatic:-Novel - new and interesting evidence to persuade those who disagree.-Believable - explain why your evidence is true and why your sources are worth believing.-Dramatic - make your evidence memorable with attention-getting comparisons and stories.Create memorable slogans- many products and famous speeches are associated with their slogans, like when Martin Luther King, Jr. proclaimed, “I have a dream…”
19 Tips for Persuasive Speeches Address audience needs and benefits- satisfy the audience’s needs of safety and belonging by using pronouns such as we, our, and us.Enlist celebrities- especially good for the indirect route of persuasion, can help your own credibility.
20 Persuasive Organizational Patterns: Problem/Cause/Solution Describes a serious problem and why it continues to exist, and offers a solution.Works best when you are proposing a specific course of action.
21 Persuasive Organizational Patterns: Better Plan Best when used for a difficult problemThis pattern lets you present a plan that will improve a situation and help solve a problem while acknowledging that a total solution may not be possible.The plan should be good and workable, and better than the current plansExample: increased deer hunting is a better plan for decreasing the deer population
22 Persuasive Organizational Patterns: Overcoming Objections Select appropriate forms of proof and persuasive evidence to overcome objections.Use when people disagree with your topic or when faced with a difficult solution.Tell the audience what they should do and give them reasons why they should do it.Example: can be used when trying to persuade listeners to donate blood.
23 Persuasive Organizational Patterns: Monroe’s Motivated Sequence The Attention Step- capture the audienceThe Need Step- Show the audience there is a problem related to the individual needs and interests that should be solved.The Satisfaction Step- Propose a plan of action that will solve the problem and satisfy audience needs.The Visualization Step- Describe what life will be like after the plan is implemented.The Action Step- Ask audience members to act in a way that benefits the plan.
24 Persuasive Organizational Patterns: Persuasive Stories Rely on narrative and emotional proof to show how people, events, and objects could be affected by the change you’re seeking.Can be very effective for a neutral audience.
25 Avoid:Causal fallacy – making false cause-and-effect connections between two thingsBandwagon fallacy – reasoning that is based on common beliefs and ‘majority’ opinionsEither-or fallacy – oversimplifying an issue as having only one of two outcomes/choices
26 Avoid:Hasty generalizations – reaching conclusion without adequate evidence to support itAttacking the person – rather than attacking idea itselfRed herring – use irrelevant facts of information to distract someone from the issue that needs to be discussed
27 Avoid:Appeal to misplaced authority – use of credibility of someone to endorse an idea or product without the person having appropriate credentials or expertise to provide such endorsementNon sequitur – idea or conclusion does not logically follow the previous idea or conclusion (does not follow).
28 How to use emotion to persuade: Use concrete examples that help listeners visualizeUse emotion-stimulating words:MotherlandChildrenFreedomUse nonverbal behavior to communicate your response
29 How to use emotion to persuade: Use visual imagesUse appropriate fear appealsAppeal to emotions:HopePrideCourageReverenceTap listeners’ beliefs in shared myths
30 Homework for next weekComplete outline & bibliography for persuasive speechPrepare Entertainment Survey