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The Persuasive Process

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1 The Persuasive Process
Chapter 14

2 After completing this chapter, you will be able to
define persuasion and describe the persuasive process analyze listeners’ needs and positions create logical, emotional, and credibility appeals demonstrate ethical standards identify false persuasion strategies construct and deliver a persuasive message evaluate persuasive messages discuss the ethics of persuasion

3 Persuasion is a communication process with a goal of influencing other people.

4 A persuasive message is a communication strategy designed to change a listener’s beliefs or behavior or to move a listener to action.

5 To persuade an audience, a speaker must focus on the RECIEVERS of the persuasive message.

6 A successful persuader tries to influence his/her audience by putting them in a mental state of conflict.

7 Persuasion is a very powerful communication process
Persuasion is a very powerful communication process. In its simplest form, you are making an if and then argument: If you do this, then good things will happen or bad things will be avoided.

8 There are two factors you have to consider as you develop your persuasive competence: 1. ethics 2. impact

9 Ethical persuaders do not ignore information that might weaken their positions. They consider both sides, acknowledge what might be important points on the opposing side, note why they disagree with some or all of those points, and try to convince the listeners why their positions are stronger.

10 Steps in the Persuasive Process
Decide on an audience goal. Analyze the listeners. Create logical, emotional, and credibility appeals. Organize and deliver the persuasive message. Evaluate your effectiveness.

11 To become a competent persuader, you must analyze your listeners to identify (1) their needs and (2) their positions on your topic.

12 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs

13 Listener Positions Supportive Listeners Uncommitted Listeners
agree with your ideas Uncommitted Listeners have no set opinion Indifferent Listeners don’t yet care Opposed Listeners are hostile toward your topic or ideas

14 The Greek philosopher Aristotle first prescribed the three strategies for persuasive speaking. He called them logos (logic), pathos (emotion), and ethos (credibility).

15 Types of Appeals Logical Appeals Emotional Appeals Credibility Appeals
use solid evidence and sound reasoning Emotional Appeals use listeners’ feelings to persuade them Credibility Appeals make a speaker believable

16 You can test evidence with the following questions:
Is it fact or opinion? Is it current? Is the source credible? Is it relevant? Is it valid or representative?

17 Logical Appeals Definitions Facts Statistics Examples Expert testimony

18 Types of Reasoning Inductive reasoning involves using specific
pieces of information to make a general conclusion. Small to Big Deductive reasoning involves using a general idea to reach a conclusion about a specific case. Big to Small

19 It is important to test inductive reasoning by looking at the connection between evidence and conclusion. You need to consider these factors: Are there enough examples? Are they topical? Are there important exceptions or special cases?

20 When you use deductive reasoning, you need to test it by asking yourself the following questions:
Is the general statement true? Is the specific example true? Does the specific example apply the the general statement?

21 Cause and effect reasoning suggests the one event produces a second.

22 Emotional Appeals Guilt Fear Freedom Justice Greed Patriotism
Belonging Anger Happiness

23 Credibility Appeals Believability Ethical Standards
Demonstrate your knowledge of a topic. Ethical Standards Conform to acceptable standards of conduct. Recognize competing or opposing points of view. Demonstrate that you have done careful research (Tell us your sources).

24 Sometimes speakers use incorrect or misleading appeals, called faulty appeals, to try to persuade their audience members.

25 False Persuasive Strategies
Defective Evidence (flawed information) Slippery Slope (once something happens it establishes a trend and other things) Red Herring (not related to topic) Glittering Generalities (vague, general statements) Card Stacking (piling up information on one side of an issue with little backing) Bandwagon Appeal (do something because everyone else is) Unrelated Testimonials (link things that are not related) Name-calling (attacking the other person, not their ideas)

26 Organizing the Persuasive Speech
Statement of Reasons Problem-Solution Motivated Sequence

27 Statement of Reasons For supportive listeners, just listing three or
four reasons may be enough to get your message across and inspire them to act on your proposal.

28 Problem-Solution When using the problem-solution
organization, the speaker describes the problem, relating consequences or reasons to be concerned, and then describes ways to solve the problem.

29 Motivated, or Hey-You-See-So, Method
Hey, look or listen to me! You need to here what I’m saying. See what I can do for you! So, what are you going to do about it?

30 Effective Persuaders follow these guidelines for preparing a persuasive argument:
Use a variety of supports rather than only one type. Make the links between the supports and the main ideas clear. Anticipate objections and address them directly. Keep listeners’ interests and concerns in mind. Don’t think, “What would persuade me?” Ask, “What would persuade these listeners?”

31 You can evaluate a persuasive message by asking
How credible is the speaker? What logical appeals are being used by the speaker? What emotional appeals are being used? Are they appropriate? To what extent does the message reflect an understanding of both sides on the issue? What, if anything, is unsaid or overlooked?

32 Summary Effective persuaders use the following steps:
Decide on an audience goal. Analyze the listeners. Create logical, emotional, and credibility appeals. Organize and deliver the message. Evaluate the message’s effectiveness.

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