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Public Speaking Chapter Sixteen

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1 Public Speaking Chapter Sixteen
Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking

2 Persuasion Defined Efforts to persuade you occur at an average rate of once every 2 ½ minutes per day. Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior. Attitudes represent our likes and dislikes (a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something).

3 Persuasion Defined A belief is what you understand to be true or false. If you believe something, you are convinced that it exists or is true. Beliefs are typically based on past experience, Beliefs are usually based on evidence, but we hold some beliefs based on faith – we have not directly experienced something, but we believe it anyway.

4 Persuasion Defined A value is an enduring concept of right or wrong, good or bad. If you value something, you think of it as good or desirable and its opposite as negative or bad. If you do not value something, you are indifferent to it. Values form the basis of your life goals and the motivating force behind your behavior. Most Americans value honesty, trustworthiness, freedom, loyalty, family, and money. Values are deeply ingrained, usually based on long-held values and are difficult to modify.

5 Persuasion Defined Values are the most difficult to modify.
Beliefs are usually changed by evidence. Attitude are easier changed than both beliefs and values. Think carefully about your speech purpose and know whether your objective is to change or reinforce an attitude, belief, or value. Then, decide what you need to do in order to achieve your message.

6 A Classical Rhetoric Approach to Understanding Persuasion
When the goal is to persuade, the communicator selects symbols to change attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior. Aristotle identified three methods to persuade: ethos, logos, and pathos. Ethos is a speaker’s credibility. In order to be credible, a public speaker should be ethical, possess good character, have common sense, and be concerned for the well-being of the audience. The more credible a speaker is determined to be, the greater the chances that he or she will be able to persuade the audience.

7 A Classical Rhetoric Approach to Understanding Persuasion
Logos means “the word.” It is the rational, logical arguments that a speaker uses to persuade someone. A skilled persuader not only reaches a logical conclusion, but also supports the message with evidence and reasoning. Pathos is the appeal to emotion. Sometimes, we hold attitudes, values, or beliefs that are not logical, but that just make us feel positive. At the same time, we do or but things to make us feel happy, positive, or energized.

8 A Classical Rhetoric Approach to Understanding Persuasion
Use emotion or strong stories and concrete examples, as well as pictures and music. All three of these means of persuasion (ethos, logos, and pathos) are ways of motivating a listener. Motivation is the internal force that drives people to achieve their goals.

9 A Classical Rhetoric Approach to Understanding Persuasion
Several factors motivate people: the need to restore balance to their lives to avoid stress the need to avoid pain the desire to increase pleasure

10 ELM: A Contemporary Approach to Understanding Persuasion
The ELM (Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion) is the theory that people can be persuaded by logic, evidence, and reasoning, or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number of arguments, or emotional appeals.

11 ELM: A Contemporary Approach to Understanding Persuasion
The ELM describes how audience members interpret persuasive messages. It is an audience-centered theory of how people make sense of persuasive communication. There are two ways that you can be persuaded: by a direct, logical route where you think critically or by in indirect route where you are persuaded by a general impression of what you are hearing.

12 ELM: A Contemporary Approach to Understanding Persuasion
To elaborate means to think about the information, ideas, and issues related to the content of the speech that you are listening to. You simply have an overall impression.

13 ELM: A Contemporary Approach to Understanding Persuasion
The Direct Persuasion Route You carefully and thoughtfully consider the facts and then make a thoughtful decision as whether to believe or do what the persuader wants. The Indirect Persuasion Route When you do not elaborate on a message, you can be persuaded by such indirect factors as catchy music in an advertisement or the salesman If you cannot identify why you are persuaded by something, you are most likely being persuaded by indirect factors.

14 How to Motivate Listeners
Persuasion works because listeners are motivated to respond to a message. An audience is more likely to be persuaded if you help members solve their problems or meet their needs. They can also be motivated if you convince them good things will happen to them if follow your advice (or that bad things will happen to them if they do not).

15 How to Motivate Listeners
Use Dissonance The dissonance theory is based on the principle that people strive to solve problems and manage stress and tension in a way that is consistent with their attitudes, beliefs, and values. Most people seek to avoid problems or feelings of dissonance.

16 How to Motivate Listeners
Cognitive Dissonance is the sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns. Creating dissonance with a persuasive speech can be an effective way to change attitudes and behavior. The first step is to identify a problem or a need.

17 How to Motivate Listeners
It is important that when using the dissonance theory to persuade, you have an ethical responsibility to not use false claims. Claiming that a problem exists when it really does not or creating dissonance about a problem that is unlikely to happen is unethical.

18 How to Motivate Listeners
How listeners’ cope with dissonance: Discredit the source Reinterpret the message The listeners hear what they want to hear Seek new information They may look for additional information to negate your opinion. Stop Listening Change their attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior

19 How to Motivate Listeners
Use Listener Needs Need is one of the best motivators. Abraham Maslow identified a hierarchy of needs that motivate everyone’s behavior. (While the “hierarchy” aspect of the needs does not always apply, the needs themselves can be used as a checklist of what could potentially motivate listeners.

20 How to Motivate Listeners
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological needs The most basic: air, water, and food. Safety Needs We all need to feel safe, secure, and protected. Social Needs We all need to feel loved and valued. Self-esteem Needs We need to think well of ourselves. Self-Actualization Needs We need to realize our highest potential.

21 How to Motivate Listeners
Use positive motivation Positive motivational appeals are statements suggesting that good things will happen if the speaker’s advice is followed. You must know what your listeners value. Emphasize benefits, not just features. A benefit is a good result or something that creates a positive feeling for the listener. A feature is simply a characteristic of whatever it is that you are talking about. When using positive motivational appeals, be sure your listeners know how the benefits of your proposal can improve the quality of their lives or of their loved ones.

22 How to Motivate Listeners
The use of a threat is often most effective. A strong threat to a loved one tends to be more successful than a threat to audience members themselves. The more competent, trustworthy, or respected the speaker, the greater the likelihood that the appeal will be successful. Fear appeals are more successful if you can convince your listeners that the threat is real and will probably happen unless they take the action you suggest.

23 How to Motivate Listeners
In general, increasing the intensity of the fear increases the chances that the fear appeal will be successful. Fear appeals are most successful if you can convince your listeners that they have the power to make a change that will reduce the threat.

24 How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
Consider the audience Develop a message that anticipates as best as you can what you audience may be thinking or feeling Consider audience diversity be culturally sensitive to your audience don’t design a message using strategies that would be effective only for you or those from your background

25 How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
Remember your ethical responsibilities do not fabricate evidence or try to frighten your listeners based on information that you know is not true Select and narrow your topic controversial issues are great topics for persuasive speeches pay attention to the media and other sources of information stay current on important issues

26 How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
Determine your persuasive purpose The social judgment theory says that when listeners are confronted with a persuasive message, their responses can be classified into one of three categories: latitude of acceptance (agree with the speaker) latitude of rejection (disagree with speaker) latitude of noncommitment (unsure of how to respond)

27 How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
You probably won’t get most listeners to fully change their values or beliefs, but if you can get them to at least move toward being more noncommittal and less rejecting, it is a good start towards your goal Develop your central idea and main ideas a proposition is a statement with which you want your audience to agree ex: All students should get to leave for lunch.

28 How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
Proposition of Fact focuses on whether something is true or false or did or did not happen ex: Al Gore received more votes than George Bush in 2000. Proposition of Value a statement that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something ex: English is better than Math.

29 How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
Proposition of Policy advocates a specific action ex: The government should give veterans more benefits.

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