Presentation on theme: "Unit 15: Using Persuasive Strategies (Chapter 17)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 15: Using Persuasive Strategies (Chapter 17) “Speech is power; Speech is to persuade, to convert, to compel.”-- Ralph Waldo Emerson
2 Persuasion“…is the process of adjusting ideas to people and people to ideas.”-- Donald C. Bryant, rhetoric scholarImage from:
3 Establishing Credibility Also known as ethos.Audience’s perception of the speakerVarious dimensions:Competence - knowledge & skillTrustworthiness - believability & honestyDynamism - energy levelCharisma - charm, talent & magnetism
8 Inductive ReasoningUsing specific examples or instances to reach a general or probable conclusion.Used when one can claim that an outcome is probably true because of specific evidence.
9 Testing Inductive Reasoning Are there enough specific instances to support the conclusion?Are the specific instances typical?Are the instances recent?
10 Inductive Reasoning Example Students are sneezing in dorms and classrooms.Professors are cancelling classes.Campus clinic has long waiting lines.Conclusion: there must be flu on our campus.
11 Deductive Reasoning Opposite of induction. Conclusion is more certain than probable.The more value the outcome, the more certain the conclusion.Start with widely accepted general claim, then move toward specific conclusion illustrating general claim.
12 Structure of Deductive Reasoning Syllogism -- three part argumentMajor Premise: widely accepted general statement.Minor Premise: specific statement that applies to the major premise.Conclusion: logical outcome, minor premise exemplifies major premise.The more value the major premise, the more value the deduction.
13 Testing the Validity of Deductive Reasoning Is the major premise (general statement) true?Is the minor premise (specific instance) true?
15 Deductive Reasoning: An Example All tough drug laws introduced in medium-sized communities result in diminished drug-related crimes. (generally accepted statement)San Marcos, Texas is a medium-sized community. (specific case supporting general statement)Conclusion: San Marcos should institute tough drug laws.
16 Causal Reasoning Relating to events to show connection. To conclude that one or more events caused another event.Can move from cause to effect.Can move from effect to cause.
18 Causal Reasoning Cause to Effect 1. Interest rates have increased this week.2. The Dow Jones will decrease.From a known fact to a predicted result.
19 Causal Resining Effect to Cause A major earthquack has occurred. The cause was a shift in a fault line.From a known result to a predicted cows.
20 Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence Use factsUse value true examplesUse opinions that enhance credibilityUse sound & reliable statisticsUse reluctant testimony -- shows that someone has been convincedUse new and specific evidenceUse evidence to tell a story
21 Avoid Faulty Reasoning Be ethical & appropriate with evidence & reasoning.Fallacy: False reasoning when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence, or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate.
23 Avoid Faulty Reasoning Causal -- Hurricanes are caused by war(connection not related)Bandwagon -- Everyone knows cell phones are safe. (popularity appeals)Either-Or -- Either you’re with us or you’re against us. (only 2 choices)Hasty Generalization -- Since my niece is failing, city schools are bad. (quick conclusion)
24 Avoid Faulty Reasoning Ad Hominem -- What does a divorced man know about parenting? (personal attack)Red Herring -- Let’s not focus on the lawsuit against me; let’s talk about…”(changing the topic to distract)Misplaced Authority -- Jessica Simpson says McMillan trucks are best. (not a true expert)Non Sequitur -- Support me for Hongress - I have 3 children. (ideas do not follow)
25 Use Emotion to Persuade Can make people feel pleasure or displeasureCan make people feel energizedCan make people feel dominance
26 Using Emotion Use concrete examples Use emotion-arousing words Use nonverbal behaviorUse visual imagesUse metaphors and similesUse appropriate fear appealsUse appeals to a variety of emotionsTap shared beliefs
27 Organizing Persuasive Messages State your strongest arguments firstDo not bury key arguments in the middleSave action calls for the endConsider presenting both sides of an issueState and refute counterarguments
28 Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages Problem -- SolutionRefutationCause and EffectMotivated SequenceAttentionNeedSatisfactionVisualizationAction
29 Persuading the Receptive Audience Identify with the audienceClearly state your objectiveTell your audience what you want them to doAsk listeners for an show of supportUse emotional appealsMake it easy for the audience to act
30 Persuading the Neutral Audience Capture listeners’ attention earlyRefer to common beliefsRelate topic to listeners’ loved onesBe realistic about what can be accomplished
31 Persuading the Unreceptive Audience Don’t immediately announce you will change their mindsBegin by noting common groundDon’t expect a major change in attitudeAcknowledge their points of viewEstablish credibilityConsider aiming for understanding rather than action