Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Unit 15: Using Persuasive Strategies (Chapter 17)

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Unit 15: Using Persuasive Strategies (Chapter 17)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 15: Using Persuasive Strategies (Chapter 17)
“Speech is power; Speech is to persuade, to convert, to compel.” -- Ralph Waldo Emerson

2 Persuasion “…is the process of adjusting ideas to people and people to ideas.” -- Donald C. Bryant, rhetoric scholar Image from:

3 Establishing Credibility
Also known as ethos. Audience’s perception of the speaker Various dimensions: Competence - knowledge & skill Trustworthiness - believability & honesty Dynamism - energy level Charisma - charm, talent & magnetism

4 Credibility Image from:

5 Enhancing Your Credibility
Well-stressed values and concerns shared with audience. Well-documented evidence,. Well-organized ideas. Well-managed delivery.

6 Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade
Logos -- formal system of rules to reach a conclusion Aristotle: “Always prove what you state.” Reasoning: drawing a conclusion from the evidence.

7 Types of Reasoning Inductive Deductive Causal

8 Inductive Reasoning Using specific examples or instances to reach a general or probable conclusion. Used when one can claim that an outcome is probably true because of specific evidence.

9 Testing Inductive Reasoning
Are there enough specific instances to support the conclusion? Are the specific instances typical? Are the instances recent?

10 Inductive Reasoning Example
Students are sneezing in dorms and classrooms. Professors are cancelling classes. Campus clinic has long waiting lines. Conclusion: there must be flu on our campus.

11 Deductive Reasoning Opposite of induction.
Conclusion is more certain than probable. The more value the outcome, the more certain the conclusion. Start with widely accepted general claim, then move toward specific conclusion illustrating general claim.

12 Structure of Deductive Reasoning
Syllogism -- three part argument Major Premise: widely accepted general statement. Minor Premise: specific statement that applies to the major premise. Conclusion: logical outcome, minor premise exemplifies major premise. The more value the major premise, the more value the deduction.

13 Testing the Validity of Deductive Reasoning
Is the major premise (general statement) true? Is the minor premise (specific instance) true?

14 Deductive Reasoning Image from:

15 Deductive Reasoning: An Example
All tough drug laws introduced in medium-sized communities result in diminished drug-related crimes. (generally accepted statement) San Marcos, Texas is a medium-sized community. (specific case supporting general statement) Conclusion: San Marcos should institute tough drug laws.

16 Causal Reasoning Relating to events to show connection.
To conclude that one or more events caused another event. Can move from cause to effect. Can move from effect to cause.

17 Causal Reasoning Image: http://

18 Causal Reasoning Cause to Effect
1. Interest rates have increased this week. 2. The Dow Jones will decrease. From a known fact to a predicted result.

19 Causal Resining Effect to Cause A major earthquack has occurred.
The cause was a shift in a fault line. From a known result to a predicted cows.

20 Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence
Use facts Use value true examples Use opinions that enhance credibility Use sound & reliable statistics Use reluctant testimony -- shows that someone has been convinced Use new and specific evidence Use evidence to tell a story

21 Avoid Faulty Reasoning
Be ethical & appropriate with evidence & reasoning. Fallacy: False reasoning when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence, or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate.

22 Faulty Reasoning Image from:

23 Avoid Faulty Reasoning
Causal -- Hurricanes are caused by war (connection not related) Bandwagon -- Everyone knows cell phones are safe. (popularity appeals) Either-Or -- Either you’re with us or you’re against us. (only 2 choices) Hasty Generalization -- Since my niece is failing, city schools are bad. (quick conclusion)

24 Avoid Faulty Reasoning
Ad Hominem -- What does a divorced man know about parenting? (personal attack) Red Herring -- Let’s not focus on the lawsuit against me; let’s talk about…” (changing the topic to distract) Misplaced Authority -- Jessica Simpson says McMillan trucks are best. (not a true expert) Non Sequitur -- Support me for Hongress - I have 3 children. (ideas do not follow)

25 Use Emotion to Persuade
Can make people feel pleasure or displeasure Can make people feel energized Can make people feel dominance

26 Using Emotion Use concrete examples Use emotion-arousing words
Use nonverbal behavior Use visual images Use metaphors and similes Use appropriate fear appeals Use appeals to a variety of emotions Tap shared beliefs

27 Organizing Persuasive Messages
State your strongest arguments first Do not bury key arguments in the middle Save action calls for the end Consider presenting both sides of an issue State and refute counterarguments

28 Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages
Problem -- Solution Refutation Cause and Effect Motivated Sequence Attention Need Satisfaction Visualization Action

29 Persuading the Receptive Audience
Identify with the audience Clearly state your objective Tell your audience what you want them to do Ask listeners for an show of support Use emotional appeals Make it easy for the audience to act

30 Persuading the Neutral Audience
Capture listeners’ attention early Refer to common beliefs Relate topic to listeners’ loved ones Be realistic about what can be accomplished

31 Persuading the Unreceptive Audience
Don’t immediately announce you will change their minds Begin by noting common ground Don’t expect a major change in attitude Acknowledge their points of view Establish credibility Consider aiming for understanding rather than action

Download ppt "Unit 15: Using Persuasive Strategies (Chapter 17)"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google