2 Characteristics of Persuasion Persuasion in not coerciveInartistic vs. artistic proofsPersuasion is usually incrementalSocial Judgment TheoryAnchorLatitude of acceptanceLatitude of rejectionLatitude of noncommitment
3 Characteristics of Persuasion (Cont.) Persuasion is interactivePersuasion can be ethicalEthical persuasion: communication in the best interest of the audience that does not depend on false or misleading information to change an audience’s attitude or behavior.
4 The Three Cornerstones of Persuasion EthosWhen audience members perceive that speaker has integrity and can be trusted.CredibilityPathosRefers to emotional proofs, or reasons to believe something.We are influenced by our feelings, passions, personal values, and perceptions.
5 The Three Cornerstones of Persuasion (Cont.) LogosRational or logical proofs.Evidence to support claims in persuasive speeches.
6 Categorizing Types of Persuasion By types of propositionPropositions of factPropositions of valuePropositions of policyBy desired outcomeConvincingActuatingBy directness of approachDirect persuasionIndirect persuasion
7 Creating the Persuasive Message Set a clear, persuasive purposeStructure the message carefullyDescribe the problemDescribe the solutionDescribe the desired audience response
8 Creating the Persuasive Message (Cont.) Use solid evidencePathos (emotional evidence)Logos (logical and rational proofs)Avoid fallaciesAttack on the person instead of the argumentReduction to the absurdEither-OrFalse causeAppeal to authorityBandwagon appeal
9 Adapting to the Audience Establish common groundOrganize according to the expected response.Adapt to a hostile audience
10 Building Credibility as a Speaker Logos (credibility)Credibility: the believability of a speaker.CompetenceCharacterCharisma