2 Understanding the Types of Persuasion 1. A question of fact concerns statements that can be seen as either true or false. You offer proof, but the audience determines whether you have convincingly proven that the statement is true.Example: Recycling can (cannot) save local communities money.
3 Understanding the Types of Persuasion 2. A question of belief focuses on what is right or wrong, good or bad, moral or immoral. While you can not prove that a belief is true or false, you can supply convincing information to justify the belief.Example: Small schools are (are not) better for most students than large schools.
4 Understanding the Types of Persuasion 3. A question of policy focuses on a particular action. You try to convince the audience to act on some policy or to agree that some policy should be changed.Example: High school athletes should (should not) be required to maintain a B average in order to compete.
5 Using Persuasive Techniques Applying logical reasoningBuilding an argument that is based on reasons supported by evidenceUsing reasons that explain or justify your thesis—They answer the question “Why?”Using evidence or material that establishes the soundness or each reason
6 Evaluate Your Reasons 1. Is each reason relevant to your thesis? 2. Is each reason distinct?3. Does each reason provide strong support for the thesis?4. Will the audience consider the reason important?5. Do you have just enough reasons? (2- 3)
7 Supporting Evidence with Reasons You should offer at least two pieces of evidence for each of your reasons. If you offer fewer, the audience may not take your reasons seriously.Facts-can be verified, checked, observed, etc.Expert opinions-a statement of belief by a knowledgeable person recognized as an authority on that subject
8 How to Evaluate Evidence Is the evidence relevant to the reason it supports?Is the evidence verifiable and reliable?Is there enough evidence?
9 Include personal references Emotional AppealsCite specificsUse vivid languageInclude personal references
10 Establishing your Credibility Credibility is the quality of being believable.Three characteristics:Competence-being well qualifiedSincerity-being genuineDynamism-being energetic and enthusiastic
11 Things to Avoid in Persuasive Speech It is unethical for public speakersTo lie or deceiveTo distortTo engage in name-callingTo attack a person or an idea without giving evidenceTo manipulate (withhold key info., present half-truths, or purposely misrepresent ideas and details)
12 Organizing your Speech Deductive ApproachThesisSupporting ReasonSupporting ReasonSupporting Reason
13 Two Types of Deductive Approach Statement of reasonsSimply list your reasons with supportProblem-solution methodEstablish problem firstGive solution
14 Organizing your Speech Inductive ApproachSupportingReasonSupportingReasonSupportingReasonThesis
15 Two Types of Inductive Approach Negative methodYou show that no option other than the one you propose is acceptable.Monroe Motivated SequenceDraw attention to the problemShow a need for some actionOutline a plan that will satisfy that needHelp the audience visualize the benefitsSuggest a specific action that puts the plan into practice