2 Foreign Policy and the American Founding Foreign policy has always been important to American politics.The United States’ weak position in world affairs and its concern that European powers might come to dominate the young country was a primary impetus to consolidating the thirteen states into a strong union.
3 The Values of American Foreign Policy 1796 Farewell Address, President George Washington left American politics with a series of warnings.In terms of foreign policy, Washington encouraged the United States to remain independent in pursuit of its interests in the world. Avoid permanent alliances.Gave voice to policy of Neutrality
4 Foreign Policy vs. Domestic Issues United States has pursued a foreign policy plagued by the tension betweenthe need for a strong defensetraditional republicanismthe hope to be “isolationist” from the world.
5 The Decline of Isolationism In the 19th centuryUnited States generally followed Washington’s leadForeign policy concerns primarily in North America and the Western Hemisphere.
6 Early Foreign Policy Decisions The American policy of “Manifest Destiny” led the United States to engage in foreign policy (war and diplomacy) with Native Americans, Canada, and Mexico in its quest to dominate North America.The Monroe Doctrine stated the United States’ special interest in the international politics of the Western Hemisphere.Not officially sanctioned by Congress in law.
7 Early 1900’sThe early 20th Century posed challenges to American isolationism.Increased international commerce enmeshed America in world affairs.America’s increased economic strength also developed an increased military strength.
8 Neutrality and the World Despite these changes, isolationism continued to temper America’s role in the world.The United States remained neutral for much of World War I.After the war, the United States retreated from the world, refusing to join the League of Nations.Even at the outset of World War II, the United States sought to maintain its neutrality.
9 The Emergence of a World Power After World War II and with the beginning of the Cold War, the United States became a world power.Created a full-fledged diplomatic corps in 1946It entered the United Nations.Use of PeacekeepersSecurity CouncilIt helped create the World Bank and the IMF.It engaged in collective security agreements like Rio Treaty (1947), NATO (1949), ANZUS (1951), SEATO (1954)
10 Two World SuperpowersThe Cold War created a “bipolar” world in which the United States sought to halt the spread of communism.Fighting the Cold War led the United States to strengthen its commitment to multilateralism and engaging the world generally.
11 Who Makes and Shapes Foreign Policy? There are three principle governmental actors or institutions that make foreign policy:the presidentthe bureaucracythe Congress
12 President – Commander in Chief The President of the United States has an unusual amount of influence in foreign policy making compared to his influence in the domestic realm.Executive AgreementsNegotiate TreatiesAppoint Ambassadors
13 Executive Departments Several executive departments and agencies advise the president and Congress on creating and implementing foreign policy:the Department of Statethe Department of Defensethe Joint Chiefs of Staffthe Central Intelligence Agencythe National Security Councilthe Department of Homeland Security
14 Congress Congress also influences foreign policy Power to declare war (5 times), role in making policy and funding programs, and the Senate’s role in ratifying treatiesCongress also influences foreign policyOften competing with the White House.
16 Congress - Key Congressional committees in the area of foreign policy: SenateForeign Relations CommitteeArmed Services CommitteeHomeland Security and Governmental Affairs CommitteeHouseForeign Affairs and Homeland Security CommitteeMost Presidents are domestic oriented.
17 Interest groups businesses defense contractors Ranging frombusinessesdefense contractorsethnic interest groups – Jewish groupsorganized laborenvironmental groups – WTO protestshuman rights organizations –Amnesty InternationalAll seek to shape American defense, diplomatic, and trade policies.
18 MediaPlays important roles in informing and shaping public perceptions of the worldAmerican citizens have relatively little knowledge of world politics.
19 The Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy Foreign policy making is composed of several tools, institutions, and sources of influence. Key tools of foreign policy include:Diplomacythe United Nationsthe International Monetary StructureEconomic AidCollective SecurityMilitary Deterrence
20 State DepartmentThrough the Department of State and the foreign service, the United States conducts foreign policy by maintaining friendly relations with the governments of other countries.Because such cooperation involves politics and trade-offs, American presidents frequently have been suspicious of diplomacy.
21 United NationsEstablished in 1945, the United Nations has served as a venue for negotiating international conflicts and seeking peaceful solutions.Despite some notable conflicts, the United States has frequently relied on the UN to accomplish its foreign-policy aims.Security Council or Peacekeeping.
22 EconomicsAmerican foreign-policy aims are also achieved through economic solutions.Institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) (short term loans) and the World Bank (long term loans) stabilize the world economy and facilitate international exchange.Through direct economic aid, the United States can provide assistance to needy countries and shore up their political position in the world. Also, economic sanctions.
23 Collective SecurityThrough collective security arrangements and bilateral treaties with individual countries, the United States seeks to cooperate and have a somewhat shared fate with its partner countries.The United States seems to share the largest part of the security burden in most of these relationships.Rio Treaty (1947), NATO (1949), ANZUS (1951), SEATO (1954)
25 Cold War - PoliciesAmerica’s high levels of military spending are elements of an overall strategy of military deterrenceThe United States purportedly seeks “peace through strength.”Containment, Military Industrial Complex, Mutually Assured Destruction, Détente
26 American Foreign Policy after the Cold War The Cold War created a relatively stable and predictable pattern of international politicsThe fall of the Soviet Union unleashed a great deal of uncertainty in world affairs and, particularly, American foreign policy.
27 New Global Approaches Current foreign policy issues today include, Nuclear ProliferationNational DefenseTerrorismInternational TradeWorld Trade Organization - Trade BarriersNAFTA type agreementsGlobal WarmingKyoto Protocol
28 TerrorismOne of the emerging complexities of the post-Cold War era is the problem of international terrorism.
29 Bush Doctrine – Preemptive Action In its most recent war with Iraq the Bush administration evinced a greater willingness to “go it alone” if need be.The United States went to Iraq with some allies (most notably Great Britain). Unlike the first Gulf War, however, the coalition built by this administration reflected a partial return to a more unilateralist American foreign policy in which the United States would act even in defiance of world opinion.
30 Security - providing for the national defense Public concern over the Patriot Act reminds us that the trade-offs between - maintaining a strong presence in the world- providing for the national defense- maintaining republican libertyare difficult indeed.