Presentation on theme: "American Government and Politics Today"— Presentation transcript:
1 American Government and Politics Today Chapter 17Foreign Policy
2 Facing the World: Foreign and Defense Policy Foreign policy includes the techniques and strategies used to achieve external goals, as well as the goals themselves. Some of the techniques used in carrying out foreign policy include: diplomacy—the total process by which states carry on political relations, economic aid—assistance to other nations in the form of grants, loans, or credits to purchase goods, and technical assistance—sending experts with technical skills in agriculture, engineering, or business to aid other nations
3 National Security and Diplomacy National security: the protection of the independence and political and economic integrity of the United States.Defense policy includes the directing of the scale and size of the American armed forces and considers the types of armed forces we need, how many wars we need to be prepared to fight simultaneously, and the type of weaponry that will be required.Diplomacy is the total process by which states carry on political relations with each other.
4 Morality Versus Reality in Foreign Policy Moral IdealismThis view of the world sees nations as normally willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards.Political RealismThis principle supports a strong military and a willingness to make deals with dictators.American Foreign Policy—A Mixture of BothEvery president has based his foreign policy on both of these principles, though some have tended to stress one or the other of the two
5 Challenges in World Politics The Emergence of TerrorismTerrorism and Regional StrifeTerrorist Attacks against Foreign CiviliansSeptember 11The War on TerrorismMilitary ResponsesA New Kind of WarBush has enunciated a new doctrine of “preemptive war” to deal with terrorism.
6 War in IraqSaddam Hussein’s annexation of Kuwait in August 1990 was the most clear-cut case of aggression against an independent nation since World War II.The Persian Gulf—The First Gulf WarThe Persian Gulf—The Second Gulf WarOccupied IraqThe security problem in IraqUprisings: Spring 2004
8 Nuclear WeaponsAmerica gained nuclear weapons in 1945, the Soviet Union in 1949, Britain in 1952, France in 1960, and China in These powers remained the only ones with open nuclear weapons programs until 1998, when Pakistan and India tested nuclear weapons.The U.S. and the Soviet UnionNuclear Proliferation
9 The New Power: ChinaAmerican policy has been to engage the Chinese in diplomatic and economic relationships in the hope of turning the nation in a more pro-Western direction.Chinese-American Trade TiesChinese-American Tensions
10 Regional Conflicts Haiti Cuba Israel and the Palestinians Bosnia The collapse of the Israeli-Palestinian peace processBosniaKosovoAIDS in South AfricaAfrican Civil War
11 Who Makes Foreign Policy? Constitutional Powers of the PresidentWar PowersTreaties and Executive AgreementsThe president appoints ambassadors and decides whether to recognize other governments as legitimate.Informal Techniques of Presidential LeadershipThese include: accessing information from within the executive branch, influencing the budgetary constraints in all areas of appropriations, economic aid, military aid, and humanitarian aid, using the “bully pulpit” to build public support for his programs, committing the nation to courses of action from which it would be very difficult to back down even if Congress wished to.
12 Other Sources of Foreign Policymaking The Department of StateThe National Security CouncilThe Intelligence CommunityCovert ActionsCriticisms of the Intelligence CommunityThe Department of Defense
13 Congress Balances the President After the War in Vietnam ( ), Congress sought to restrain the president’s ability to unilaterally commit forces to combat with the War Powers Resolution (1973). Presidents since, however, have often not consulted Congress before committing troops, and that can create a situation in which Congress does not dare recall them. Congress can sometimes take the lead, for example by voting sanctions on South Africa to oppose that nation’s former policy of racial discrimination known as apartheid.
14 Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy Elite and Mass OpinionBoth presidents and elites try to influence that subset of the public that has a strong interest in foreign policy, the attentive public.The Military-Industrial ComplexThe military-industrial complex is the term that describes the mutually beneficial relationship between the armed forces and defense contractors.
15 The Major Foreign Policy Themes The Formative Years: Avoiding EntanglementsThe Monroe DoctrineThe Spanish-American War and World War IThe Era of InternationalismThe Cold WarContainment Policy