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Chapter 14 Foreign Policy.

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1 Chapter 14 Foreign Policy

2 What is Foreign Policy? Definition: A nation’s external goals and techniques and strategies used to achieve them. American foreign policy includes national security policy, which is policy designed to protect the independence and the political and economic integrity of the United States at the insistence of the Depts. of State, Defense and the National Security Council.

3 Tools of Foreign Policy
Diplomacy – the process by which states carry on relations with each other (can also mean settling conflicts among nations through peaceful means) Economic aid – assistance to other nations through grants, loans or credits to buy the assisting nation’s products Technical assistance – sending individuals with expertise in agriculture, engineering or business to aid other nations

4 Competing Views of Foreign Policy
Moral Idealism – One theory of how nations act, it views all nations as willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct, but this is usually unsuccessful. Political Realism – Sees each nation acting principally in its own interest. We practice a blend of both: i.e. Most-Favored-Nation.

5 Powers of the President in Making Foreign Policy
Constitutional Powers (found in Article II) solemnly swears to “preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States” is commander in chief of the military can make treaties (which are later ratified by the Senate) can enter into executive agreements. No Senate approval needed. can appoint ambassadors can recognize foreign governments Informal powers has access to information: CIA, State, and Defense Depts. is a legislative leader who can influence Congress’s foreign policy and funding can influence public opinion: command the media can commit the nation morally to a course of action

6 Other Sources of Foreign Policymaking
Department of State supervises relations with other independent nations and with multinational organizations like the United Nations staffs embassies power has declined since World War II administers foreign aid has “negative constituents,” Americans who oppose aspects of U.S. foreign policy National Security Council (NSC, created in 1947) advises the president on policies relating to national security is a rival of influence to the State Dept. today provides continuity from one presidential administration to the next

7 Other Sources of Foreign Policy (cont.)
The Intelligence Community – Includes government organizations involved in information gathering about the capabilities and intentions of other countries Some agencies in the intelligence community include: The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) National Security Agency (NSA) Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) The Department of Defense – Designed to bring all military activities under the jurisdiction of a single agency headed by a civil secretary of defense. has seen size of military significantly reduced has seen reductions in civilian employees

8 Major Foreign Policy Themes
“Negative” foreign policy during 1700s and 1800s (isolationism) mistrust of Europe militarily weak shaped by the Monroe Doctrine Spanish – American War and World War I seen as temporary entanglements lasted from followed by a resurgence of isolationism The Era of Internationalism began with bombing of Pearl Harbor, and United States entry into World War II resulted in significant increases in defense spending emerged from World War II with a strengthened economy controlled nuclear weapons

9 Superpower Relations During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never had any direct military confrontations, but used client states to carry out policies one example was the Korean War ( ) during which American troops intervened when communist-backed troops from North Korea invaded South Korea. Another example was the Vietnam War ( ) during which the United States supported South Vietnamese forces against communist-backed North Vietnamese troops. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the superpowers came to direct confrontation Détente between the United States and the Soviet Union occurred in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, exemplified by the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) in 1972. During the 1980’s the Reagan administration lobbied for the development of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI or “Star Wars), and also negotiated significant arms control treaties The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the developments in Eastern Europe made negotiating arms control more difficult, as nuclear weapons are now held by a number of sovereign nations, rather than one

10 Challenges in World Politics
Nuclear proliferation The war or terrorism Regional conflicts: Middle East conflict. Eastern Europe, Africa, The global economy China: MFN status, human rights, WTO, SARS, 2008 Olympics

11 Hot Links to Selected Internet Resources:

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