2 What is Foreign Policy?Definition: A nation’s external goals and techniques and strategies used to achieve them.American foreign policy includes national security policy, which is policy designed to protect the independence and the political and economic integrity of the United States at the insistence of the Depts. of State, Defense and the National Security Council.
3 Tools of Foreign Policy Diplomacy – the process by which states carry on relations with each other (can also mean settling conflicts among nations through peaceful means)Economic aid – assistance to other nations through grants, loans or credits to buy the assisting nation’s productsTechnical assistance – sending individuals with expertise in agriculture, engineering or business to aid other nations
4 Competing Views of Foreign Policy Moral Idealism – One theory of how nations act, it views all nations as willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct, but this is usually unsuccessful.Political Realism – Sees each nation acting principally in its own interest.We practice a blend of both: i.e. Most-Favored-Nation.
5 Powers of the President in Making Foreign Policy Constitutional Powers (found in Article II)solemnly swears to “preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States”is commander in chief of the militarycan make treaties (which are later ratified by the Senate)can enter into executive agreements. No Senate approval needed.can appoint ambassadorscan recognize foreign governmentsInformal powershas access to information: CIA, State, and Defense Depts.is a legislative leader who can influence Congress’s foreign policy and fundingcan influence public opinion: command the mediacan commit the nation morally to a course of action
6 Other Sources of Foreign Policymaking Department of Statesupervises relations with other independent nations and with multinational organizations like the United Nationsstaffs embassiespower has declined since World War IIadministers foreign aidhas “negative constituents,” Americans who oppose aspects of U.S. foreign policyNational Security Council (NSC, created in 1947)advises the president on policies relating to national securityis a rival of influence to the State Dept. todayprovides continuity from one presidential administration to the next
7 Other Sources of Foreign Policy (cont.) The Intelligence Community – Includes government organizations involved in information gathering about the capabilities and intentions of other countriesSome agencies in the intelligence community include:The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)National Security Agency (NSA)Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)The Department of Defense – Designed to bring all military activities under the jurisdiction of a single agency headed by a civil secretary of defense.has seen size of military significantly reducedhas seen reductions in civilian employees
8 Major Foreign Policy Themes “Negative” foreign policy during 1700s and 1800s (isolationism)mistrust of Europemilitarily weakshaped by the Monroe DoctrineSpanish – American War and World War Iseen as temporary entanglementslasted fromfollowed by a resurgence of isolationismThe Era of Internationalismbegan with bombing of Pearl Harbor, and United States entry into World War IIresulted in significant increases in defense spendingemerged from World War II with a strengthened economycontrolled nuclear weapons
9 Superpower RelationsDuring the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never had any direct military confrontations, but used client states to carry out policiesone example was the Korean War ( ) during which American troops intervened when communist-backed troops from North Korea invaded South Korea.Another example was the Vietnam War ( ) during which the United States supported South Vietnamese forces against communist-backed North Vietnamese troops.The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the superpowers came to direct confrontationDétente between the United States and the Soviet Union occurred in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, exemplified by the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) in 1972.During the 1980’s the Reagan administration lobbied for the development of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI or “Star Wars), and also negotiated significant arms control treatiesThe dissolution of the Soviet Union and the developments in Eastern Europe made negotiating arms control more difficult, as nuclear weapons are now held by a number of sovereign nations, rather than one
10 Challenges in World Politics Nuclear proliferationThe war or terrorismRegional conflicts: Middle East conflict. Eastern Europe, Africa,The global economyChina: MFN status, human rights, WTO, SARS, 2008 Olympics