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Foreign and Defense Policy. Foreign Policy Defined  Foreign policy:  Policies of the federal government directed to matters beyond (outside) US borders,

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Presentation on theme: "Foreign and Defense Policy. Foreign Policy Defined  Foreign policy:  Policies of the federal government directed to matters beyond (outside) US borders,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Foreign and Defense Policy

2 Foreign Policy Defined  Foreign policy:  Policies of the federal government directed to matters beyond (outside) US borders, especially relations with other countries.  International objectives pursued by a country in dealings with other countries  The methods to achieve the objectives, in order to advance national interests.

3 U.S. Foreign Policy  The U.S. foreign policy is dynamic.  It is always changing and will continue to change as times and world affairs change.

4 Examples of Foreign Policy  Defense  Democracy and Human Rights  Foreign Aid  The Global Environment  International Trade  Weapons Proliferation  Activities in Regions of the World

5 Goals of Foreign Policy  National Security  World Peace  Self- government (democracy)  Free and Open Trade  Concern for Humanity

6 Goal: National Security  To remain free and independent  To be secure from unwanted foreign influence  Includes the use of ambassadors and treaties  Military  CIA  Central Intelligence Agency  FBI  Federal Bureau of Investigations

7 Goal: World Peace  Promote peace and prevent conflicts  Cooperation with governments of foreign nations  Help save lives, money, and resources in foreign nations  Give aid to foreign nations  Membership in The United Nations

8 Goal: Self Government / Democracy  Encourage the growth of democracy in other nations and regions  Fair elections, choices, individual freedoms  Immigration  Defined: To enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native

9 Goal: Free Trade  Trade arrangements where tariffs or other barriers to the free flow of goods and services are eliminated.  The basic argument for free trade is based on the idea that each region should concentrate on what it can produce most cheaply and efficiently and should exchange its products for those it is less able to produce economically.

10 Disadvantages of Free Trade:  Small local companies get out maneuvered and overtaken by large corporate companies  Fewer jobs available for some home countries  Example: few jobs available for US auto makers  there is more competition.

11 Advantages of Free Trade  Provides employment around the world  competition creates lower cost of goods  forces countries into specializing in what they are good at  This increased efficiency and results in a lower opportunity costs  Offers access to natural resources around the world  Oil, other

12 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  A trade agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which took effect January 1, 1994.  Its purpose is to promote trade between one another and increase the efficiency and fairness of trade between the three nations.

13 Goal: Humanitarian  Defined: Having concern for or helping to improve the welfare of other people.  Helps to provide political stability in other nations.  Examples:  Aid for natural disasters around the world  Aid for food shortages  Aid of medical supplies and technology

14 Foreign Policy Categories  Isolationism  Imperialism  Interventionism

15 Isolationism  Avoidance of international relations:  A government policy based on the belief that national interests are best served by avoiding economic and political alliances with other countries.

16 Interventionism  Involvement in another country’s affairs:  Political interference or military involvement by one country in the affairs of another.

17 Imperialism  Belief in empire-building:  The policy of extending the rule or influence of a country over other countries or colonies.  Domination by an empire:  The political, military, or economic domination of one country over another.

18 Decision Making Possible actions government might take:  Do nothing* Pres. statement  Call for negotiations* Propaganda  Economic aid* Economic sanctions  Send military materials* Military presence  Military threats* Blockade  Mobilize troops* Subversive action  Use troops spy  Bombing assassination  Invasion weaken leadership

19 Roots of U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy  Isolationism in the early republic  Growing power and influence  World War I and the League of Nations  The interwar years

20 Isolationism in the Early Republic  The Embargo Act of 1807  The War of 1812  The Monroe Doctrine of 1823

21 Growing Power and Influence  Trade policy and commerce  Expansionism and manifest destiny  Dominance over the western hemisphere  The Roosevelt Corollary of 1904  Interest in Asia  The Spanish-American War

22 World War I and the League of Nations  World War I  League of Nations  Collective security  Failure to pass the Treaty of Versailles

23 The Interwar Years  Disarmament  Isolationism  The Kellogg-Briand Pact

24 The United States as a World Power  World War II and its aftermath  The Cold War and containment  Détente and human rights  The Post-Cold War world  The war on terrorism

25 World War II and Its Aftermath  The U.S.  internationalism  Bretton Woods System  The International Monetary Fund (IMF)  The World Bank  The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

26 The Cold War and Containment  Containment  The Truman Doctrine  The Marshall Plan  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)  The Cold War  Latin American: The Cuban Missile Crisis  The Vietnam War

27 Détente and Human Rights  Nixon and detente  The “China card”  The SALT agreements  Carter and human rights  The Reagan Doctrine  Afghanistan

28 The Post-Cold War World  Operation Desert Storm  Clinton and enlargement  Economic: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  Political (NATO, EU)

29 The War on Terrorism  September 11 and the war in Afghanistan  The war in Iraq

30 Foreign and Defense Policy Decision Making  The Constitution  The Executive Branch  The President  The National Security Council  The Departments of State, Defense, and Homeland Security  The Intelligence community

31 Congress  Oversight  Treaties and executive agreements  Appointments – weakly exercised  Appropriations  The War Powers Act

32 Interest Groups Other actors can become active in foreign policy decision-making  The military industrial complex  News media, which acts as a filter  Public opinion, interest, and action  Nongovernmental organizations

33 Contemporary Challenges in Foreign and Defense Policy  Trade  Immigration and border security  Terrorism  Nuclear weapons

34 Trade  Free trade system  Making trade policy  NAFTA  WTO  The Case of China  1949-1979 economic isolation  The U.S.-China bilateral trade agreement (1979)  2001 China joins WTO

35 Immigration and Border Security  Making immigration policy  Open door policy  Restrictive quotas  Border blockades  The case of Mexico

36 Terrorism  Making counterterrorism policy  Diplomacy – get other states on board  Military power  Economic power  Covert operations  The case of Al-Qaeda

37 Nuclear Weapons  Making arms proliferation policy  disarmament  arms control  denial  defensive weapons  counterproliferation  The case of North Korea  The International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA)

38 Toward Reform: Rethinking American Power  Unilateralism  The United States emerged from the Cold War as the world’s dominant power.  It was able to act unilaterally.  Lengthy wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and a struggling global economy weaken it.  Multilateralism  China is primary challenger and a potential partner  League of Democracies

39 How has defense spending changed over time?

40 Who are the United States’ major trading partners?

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