6 Defense Department The Department of the Army The army is the largest and the oldest of the armed services.The army consists of standing troops, or the Regular Army, and its reserve units—the Army National Guard and Army Reserve.The Department of the NavyThe navy’s major responsibilities are for sea warfare and defense.The U.S. Marine Corps, a combat-ready land force, are under the auspices of navy command.The Department of the Air ForcesThe air force is the youngest branch of the armed services.The air force’s main responsibility is to serve as the nation’s first line of defense.
7 Other Foreign and Defense Agencies The CIAThe Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a key part of the foreign policy establishment.The CIA is responsible for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information for the President and the NSC.A full range of espionage, or spying, activities are undertaken by the CIA.
8 Other Foreign and Defense Agencies The Office of Homeland SecurityThe Office of Homeland Security is part of the Executive Office of the President. Its director has cabinet rank.The office oversees the anti-terrorist efforts of federal, State, and local agencies, including the FBI, the CIA, the Coast Guard, and local police forces.
9 Other Foreign and Defense Agencies NASAThe National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the independent agency that deals with the nation’s space policy.
10 Foreign PolicyFor 150 years, the United States had a policy of isolationism, as stated in George Washington’s Farewell Address.The Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned Europe to stay out of the affairs of North and South America and established the United States as the hegemonic power of the Western Hemisphere.Throughout the nineteenth century, the United States expanded across the North American continent through both land purchases and military conquests.As the United States expanded commercially in the late nineteenth century, so did the reach of its foreign policy, as seen in the Good Neighbor policy in effect in Latin America during the early 1900s, and the Open Door Policy for China during the same time.
11 Foreign Policy World War I The United States entered World War I after continued disruptions of American commerce by German submarine warfare.After the defeat of Germany and the Central Powers, the nation retreated to a policy of isolationism.World War IIThe bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, drew the United States into World War II, joining the Allies (the Soviet Union, Britain, and China) fighting against the Axis Powers (Italy, Japan, and Germany).World War II led to a historic shift away from isolationism to an increased role in global affairs by the United States.
12 Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances Foreign aid—economic and military aid to other countries—has been a basic feature of American foreign policy for more than 50 years.Most aid has been sent to those nations regarded as the most critical to the realization of this country’s foreign policy objectives.
13 Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances NATOThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed to promote the collective defense of Western Europe.Today, NATO’s purpose has changed. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, NATO’s goals have broadened to include peacekeeping roles
14 United NationsThe United Nations was formed following World War II to promote peace and security across the globe.The General Assembly acts as “the town meeting of the world.”Oversight and maintenance of international peace is delegated to the UN Security Council, of which the United States is a permanent member.Peacekeeping missions, international aid to children and women, and investigations and aid for world health services are all examples of current United Nations functions.