Fundamental Causes are events that happen over a period of time and do not DIRECTLY lead to the event. For Example: 1. Slavery 2. Economic Differences 3. Sectionalism
Immediate causes are events that happen right before the major event and lead DIRECTLY to the event For Example: 1. John Brown’s Raid on Harpers’ Ferry 2. The Election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 3. South Carolina secedes from the Union
1. The Original Confederate States of America (see map) a. South Carolina (The first to secede) b. Georgia c. Florida d. Alabama e. Mississippi f. Louisiana g. Texas These states make up the Deep South.
Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina
Confederate capital formed – was originally Montgomery, Alabama, but was later moved to Richmond, Virginia. Confederate president – Jefferson Davis Confederate vice- president – Alexander Stephens (from Georgia). He was against secession, but was still respected by all Southerners.
Fort Sumter protects Charleston, South Carolina The fort was controlled by the Union (North). South Carolina fired cannons at Fort Sumter and forced the Union to surrender the fort to the Confederacy. This is considered the start of the Civil War.
NORTHSOUTH Greater population to draft from. Better Industry to produce weapons and food. An established government and military More Railroads Home field advantage – although it destroyed the land, they knew the land. Better military leaders in the beginning. Felt they were fighting for a cause (States Rights)
NORTH (ANACONDA PLAN) SOUTH (KING COTTON DIPLOMACY) Use their well established navy to create a blockade around the South. Take Control of the Mississippi River. Use blockade runners to sneak past the blockade. Convince England that they need cotton so bad that they would break through the blockade and help the South. Fight defensively, make the Union attack them in battles.
Battle of Bull Run First Battle of the Civil War. Won by the Confederacy (big surprise to everybody) Showed both sides that it was going to be a long war.
Battle of Antietam 1. Single bloodiest day in American History with over 23,000 casualties (killed, wounded, or missing) in a 10 hour period. 2. Fought in Maryland (border state) 3. After the battle, Abraham Lincoln thought he could convince the South to surrender so he issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
Battle of Vicksburg Won by the North and gave them control of the Mississippi River. North was led by Ulysses S. Grant. Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas were cut off from the rest of the Confederacy.
Battle of Gettysburg Only Civil War battle fought in a free state (Pennsylvania) Won by the North Over 46,000 casualties Was the turning point of the war. Most people felt that whoever won this battle would win the whole war. They were right.
Battle of Chickamauga Largest battle fought in Georgia (just over the border from Chattanooga, TN) Won by the Confederacy, but they still had to retreat Gave the North a staging point from which to attack Atlanta (the industrial center of the South)
Fort Pulaski Protected Savannah, GA. Union forces attacked from Tybee Island with rifled cannons, which shoot farther. South was forced to surrender and the North could take control of Savannah, GA.
Battle of Appomattox Last battle of the Civil War Afterwards, Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, which marks the end of the Civil War.
Leaders: William T. Sherman – told by Ulysses S. Grant to take control of Atlanta’s transportation and industry. James Johnston – first put in charge of protecting Atlanta John B. Hood – replaced Johnston.
Battles fought between Chattanooga and Atlanta Dalton Resaca New Hope Allatoona Kennesaw Mountain (won by South) Jonesboro
Atlanta Jonesboro Kennesaw Mnt. Allatoona New Hope Resaca Dalton
Sherman’s March to the Sea Went from Atlanta to Savannah Destroyed everything in their path to make Georgia want to quit fighting. Savannah offered to Lincoln as a Christmas present.
Henry Wirz – executed for excessive cruelty for the poor treatment of prisoners at Andersonville. Problems faced Overpopulation- was meant for 10,000 but they had 30,000 prisoners. Diseases Bad drinking water