Presentation on theme: "The Civil War October 14, 2013. Beginnings ► The United States had been slowly moving toward war for most of the early 1800s ► Things began spiraling."— Presentation transcript:
Beginnings ► The United States had been slowly moving toward war for most of the early 1800s ► Things began spiraling out of control after Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860 ► South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860 ► They were quickly followed by Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas within the next two months.
The Confederacy ► What had been the southern United States formed the Confederate States of America on February 9, 1861 ► At first, the North was trying to peacefully negotiate a reunion of the U.S. ► However, on April 12, 1861, Fort Sumter, a Northern-held fort in South Carolina was fired on by the South, and the war begins ► Virginia then secedes, followed by Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina ► There are now 11 states in the Confederacy
Union Blockade ► When the war started, the Union strategy was to blockade (obstruct) all Confederate seaports This would prevent the South from importing or exporting anything through its ports ► Lincoln issued the blockade on April 19, 1861 ► However, Union ships were no match for blockade runners These were private ships that would zip in and out of the blockade bringing much needed supplies ► The blockade took its toll, though Soon it was difficult to get farm supplies, household items, medical supplies, or manufacturing replacement parts
The Battle of Bull Run ► Many in the North believed that the South would cave early and the war would be over quickly ► However, the Battle of Bull Run proved that the South was not going to back down ► The North suffered heavy losses at Bull Run, Virginia, and were forced to retreat to Washington, D.C. ► After this, President Lincoln realized that the war would be longer than anyone previously thought
The Battle of Antietam ► By 1862, Confederate troops, under the command of General Robert E. Lee, were moving into Union territory ► On Sept. 17, 1862 they met Union forces at Antietam Creek, in Sharpsburg, Maryland ► This was the first invasion of the North by General Lee, and it was not successful ► It was the bloodiest one-day battle of the Civil War, (23,000 killed, wounded, or missing) and Confederate troops were forced to retreat to Virginia
The Emancipation Proclamation ► The major Confederate loss at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which would free all slaves as of January 1, 1863 ► Lincoln wanted the Confederate states to end the war, and he believed that the Proclamation, along with their major losses, would push them to surrender ► President Lincoln gave the Confederacy a choice: end the war right away and keep their slaves, or keep fighting and lose their slaves ► The South chose to fight ► Most slaves, however, were not freed until the end of the war
The Battle of Gettysburg ► The Battle of Gettysburg (arguably the most famous of the war), marked a turning point in the war for both sides ► It was fought July 1-3, 1863 in Pennsylvania, and resulted in a Union victory that ended General Lee’s second invasion of the North ► Lee was again forced to retreat to Virginia and things were never again the same for the Confederacy ► Union forces began to win more and more battles, while Confederate forces lost moral and the will to fight
The Battle of Vicksburg ► One day after Gettysburg, the town of Vicksburg, Mississippi, surrendered to the Union troops ► The town, which lies on the Mississippi River, had been a major Confederate stronghold ► This Union victory gave them control of the Mississippi River, and split the Confederacy in two, separating them at the river
The Battle of Chickamauga ► By late 1863, Union troops were moving farther and farther south, almost into Georgia ► On September 19-20, 1863, Union troops encountered Confederate troops at Chickamauga Creek, just south of the Tennessee border in Georgia ► It was a Confederate victory, forcing the Union back into Tennessee ► However, by November, the Union had brought more troops and began advancing into Georgia
Georgia’s Role in the War ► By the start of the war, Atlanta was a major economic and transportation center in the South ► Several different railroads crossed through the city, making Atlanta important in getting troops and supplies to the battle front ► Union leaders knew that if Atlanta was captured, then that would effectively end the Confederate war effort
The Atlanta Campaign ► In early 1864, 112,000 Union troops, under the leadership of General William T. Sherman, were camped in Chattanooga, TN, just across the Georgia/Tennessee border ► During the late spring and early summer, General Sherman moved his troops southward, clashing time and again with Confederate troops, but always slowly moving towards Atlanta
The Battle of Atlanta ► On July 22, 1864, General Sherman finally reached the city of Atlanta ► He encountered Confederate troops under the leadership of General John B. Hood ► The battle continued off and on for two months, and losses were heavy on both sides, but Sherman eventually captured Atlanta on September 2, 1864
The Burning of Atlanta ► After Sherman captured the city, he and his soldiers stayed for 2 months ► On November 15, 1864, they destroyed the railroads and factories by setting fire to them ► They then marched out on Sherman’s infamous “March to the Sea”
Sherman’s March to the Sea ► The army moved quickly to Savannah, burning everything in a path 60 miles wide ► They destroyed all military targets and farms, homes, railroads, and bridges that supported the Confederate army ► They took a little over 1 month to get to Savannah, arriving on December 22, 1864 ► Sherman took over the city the next day, cutting off the Confederate army in Virginia from its southern suppliers
End of the War ► After the loss of Atlanta and Savannah, the Confederate war effort struggled to keep going ► Abraham Lincoln had been re-elected to a second term as president in 1864 ► The only Confederate troops left were Lee’s troops in Virginia, and a small group in North Carolina ► They tried one more time to fight in March 1865, but failed ► On April 9, 1865, the Confederacy surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse in Appomattox, Virginia ► 5 days later, Abraham Lincoln was shot at Ford’s Theatre ► He died the next day
Questions ► 1) After secession, what was the name of the new country formed by the South? ► 2) When did the Civil War start? Where? ► 3) What was the Union blockade? ► 4) Who was the commander of Confederate troops at Antietam? ► 5) What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? ► 6) When was the Battle of Gettysburg? Who won? ► 7) Why were Georgia and Atlanta important to the Confederate war effort? ► 8) Who commanded Union troops during the Atlanta Campaign? ► 9) When did Sherman finally capture Atlanta? ► 10) Why do you think Sherman burned Atlanta before he left? ► 11) Where did the March to the Sea end? ► 12) When did the Confederacy surrender? ► 13) How did Abraham Lincoln die?
Social Studies 10/16/13 ► PowerPoint Questions are due now! They will not be accepted after 3:20! ► We will begin working on your weekly project. ► It is due Friday no exceptions!