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The Civil War October 14, 2013. Beginnings ► The United States had been slowly moving toward war for most of the early 1800s ► Things began spiraling.

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War October 14, 2013. Beginnings ► The United States had been slowly moving toward war for most of the early 1800s ► Things began spiraling."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War October 14, 2013

2 Beginnings ► The United States had been slowly moving toward war for most of the early 1800s ► Things began spiraling out of control after Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860 ► South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860 ► They were quickly followed by Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas within the next two months.

3 The Confederacy ► What had been the southern United States formed the Confederate States of America on February 9, 1861 ► At first, the North was trying to peacefully negotiate a reunion of the U.S. ► However, on April 12, 1861, Fort Sumter, a Northern-held fort in South Carolina was fired on by the South, and the war begins ► Virginia then secedes, followed by Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina ► There are now 11 states in the Confederacy

4 Union vs. Confederate

5 Union Blockade ► When the war started, the Union strategy was to blockade (obstruct) all Confederate seaports  This would prevent the South from importing or exporting anything through its ports ► Lincoln issued the blockade on April 19, 1861 ► However, Union ships were no match for blockade runners  These were private ships that would zip in and out of the blockade bringing much needed supplies ► The blockade took its toll, though  Soon it was difficult to get farm supplies, household items, medical supplies, or manufacturing replacement parts

6 Union Blockade

7 The Battle of Bull Run ► Many in the North believed that the South would cave early and the war would be over quickly ► However, the Battle of Bull Run proved that the South was not going to back down ► The North suffered heavy losses at Bull Run, Virginia, and were forced to retreat to Washington, D.C. ► After this, President Lincoln realized that the war would be longer than anyone previously thought

8 The Battle of Antietam ► By 1862, Confederate troops, under the command of General Robert E. Lee, were moving into Union territory ► On Sept. 17, 1862 they met Union forces at Antietam Creek, in Sharpsburg, Maryland ► This was the first invasion of the North by General Lee, and it was not successful ► It was the bloodiest one-day battle of the Civil War, (23,000 killed, wounded, or missing) and Confederate troops were forced to retreat to Virginia

9 The Emancipation Proclamation ► The major Confederate loss at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which would free all slaves as of January 1, 1863 ► Lincoln wanted the Confederate states to end the war, and he believed that the Proclamation, along with their major losses, would push them to surrender ► President Lincoln gave the Confederacy a choice: end the war right away and keep their slaves, or keep fighting and lose their slaves ► The South chose to fight ► Most slaves, however, were not freed until the end of the war

10 The Battle of Gettysburg ► The Battle of Gettysburg (arguably the most famous of the war), marked a turning point in the war for both sides ► It was fought July 1-3, 1863 in Pennsylvania, and resulted in a Union victory that ended General Lee’s second invasion of the North ► Lee was again forced to retreat to Virginia and things were never again the same for the Confederacy ► Union forces began to win more and more battles, while Confederate forces lost moral and the will to fight

11 The Battle of Vicksburg ► One day after Gettysburg, the town of Vicksburg, Mississippi, surrendered to the Union troops ► The town, which lies on the Mississippi River, had been a major Confederate stronghold ► This Union victory gave them control of the Mississippi River, and split the Confederacy in two, separating them at the river

12 The Battle of Chickamauga ► By late 1863, Union troops were moving farther and farther south, almost into Georgia ► On September 19-20, 1863, Union troops encountered Confederate troops at Chickamauga Creek, just south of the Tennessee border in Georgia ► It was a Confederate victory, forcing the Union back into Tennessee ► However, by November, the Union had brought more troops and began advancing into Georgia

13 Georgia’s Role in the War ► By the start of the war, Atlanta was a major economic and transportation center in the South ► Several different railroads crossed through the city, making Atlanta important in getting troops and supplies to the battle front ► Union leaders knew that if Atlanta was captured, then that would effectively end the Confederate war effort

14 The Atlanta Campaign ► In early 1864, 112,000 Union troops, under the leadership of General William T. Sherman, were camped in Chattanooga, TN, just across the Georgia/Tennessee border ► During the late spring and early summer, General Sherman moved his troops southward, clashing time and again with Confederate troops, but always slowly moving towards Atlanta

15 The Atlanta Campaign

16 The Battle of Atlanta ► On July 22, 1864, General Sherman finally reached the city of Atlanta ► He encountered Confederate troops under the leadership of General John B. Hood ► The battle continued off and on for two months, and losses were heavy on both sides, but Sherman eventually captured Atlanta on September 2, 1864

17 The Burning of Atlanta ► After Sherman captured the city, he and his soldiers stayed for 2 months ► On November 15, 1864, they destroyed the railroads and factories by setting fire to them ► They then marched out on Sherman’s infamous “March to the Sea”

18 Sherman’s March to the Sea ► The army moved quickly to Savannah, burning everything in a path 60 miles wide ► They destroyed all military targets and farms, homes, railroads, and bridges that supported the Confederate army ► They took a little over 1 month to get to Savannah, arriving on December 22, 1864 ► Sherman took over the city the next day, cutting off the Confederate army in Virginia from its southern suppliers

19 Sherman’s March to the Sea

20 End of the War ► After the loss of Atlanta and Savannah, the Confederate war effort struggled to keep going ► Abraham Lincoln had been re-elected to a second term as president in 1864 ► The only Confederate troops left were Lee’s troops in Virginia, and a small group in North Carolina ► They tried one more time to fight in March 1865, but failed ► On April 9, 1865, the Confederacy surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse in Appomattox, Virginia ► 5 days later, Abraham Lincoln was shot at Ford’s Theatre ► He died the next day

21 Questions ► 1) After secession, what was the name of the new country formed by the South? ► 2) When did the Civil War start? Where? ► 3) What was the Union blockade? ► 4) Who was the commander of Confederate troops at Antietam? ► 5) What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? ► 6) When was the Battle of Gettysburg? Who won? ► 7) Why were Georgia and Atlanta important to the Confederate war effort? ► 8) Who commanded Union troops during the Atlanta Campaign? ► 9) When did Sherman finally capture Atlanta? ► 10) Why do you think Sherman burned Atlanta before he left? ► 11) Where did the March to the Sea end? ► 12) When did the Confederacy surrender? ► 13) How did Abraham Lincoln die?

22 Social Studies 10/16/13 ► PowerPoint Questions are due now! They will not be accepted after 3:20! ► We will begin working on your weekly project. ► It is due Friday no exceptions!

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