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Strategy and Battles of the Civil War

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Presentation on theme: "Strategy and Battles of the Civil War"— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategy and Battles of the Civil War

2 General Information The American Civil War lasted 4 years
From April 1861 till April 1865 It was the deadliest war ever fought with over 550,000 deaths It was a war fought between the Union (North) and the Confederacy (South) Sometimes brother against brother

3 Civil War Begins First shots were fired at Fort Sumter, off the Coast of Charleston, South Carolina on April 12, 1861 Confederate forces attacked the Union fort and captured it War had begun Fort Sumter today


5 Union Strategy The North was on offense—they will need to bring the South back into the U.S. Planned to use the Navy to blockade the Confederate ports to keep them from getting supplies from Europe Union Generals in the East planned to seize the Confederate Capital— Richmond, Virginia Union Generals in the West would seize the Mississippi River which would stop the South from using the River and cut off Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana from the rest of the Confederacy The Union strategy will become known as the ANACONDA PLAN

6 Anaconda Plan

7 Confederate Strategy The Southern states were on defense
They had left the United States and felt they were right in doing so They would fight to defend their rights until the Union gave up

8 Important Military Leaders
Union Commanders 1. George McClellan 2. George Mead 3. Ulysses S. Grant McClellan Grant

9 Important Military Leaders
Confederate Commander Robert E. Lee Other Important Military Leaders: --Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

10 Battle of Bull Run (Virginia)
July 1861—Union forces fought the Rebels at a small stream in Virginia called Bull Run near the town of Manassas Stonewall Jackson forced the Union to retreat Showed that both sides that soldiers needed better training and the war would be long and bloody Sometimes called 1st Manassas

11 Battle of Bull Run


13 Shiloh--Mississippi April 1862—Battle occurred along the Tennessee River in Mississippi Union forces under Grant were attacked by Confederates Grant lost his ground the 1st day but regrouped and pushed the Confederates out of the area the next day

14 Battle of Shiloh This Union victory helped them seize control of the Mississippi River After Shiloh, Grant led a series of maneuvers to gain control of Vicksburg, Mississippi The Union had total control of the Mississippi River in July of 1863

15 Antietam-Maryland September 1862—Confederate General Robert E. Lee wanted a victory on Northern soil Wanted to decrease the moral of the Union Union found out about Lee’s plans and struck first


17 Antietam-Maryland Although the Confederacy retreated back to Virginia at the end of the battle, it was not a true victory for the Union The Union did not follow the Rebels and because of this Union General McClellan was replaced as commander because he acted too passively

18 Antietam-Maryland It was not a true victory for the Union because so many soldiers were lost It was the bloodiest single day battle of the war Over 23,000 troops were killed or wounded within a few hours

19 Antietam-Maryland



22 Emancipation Proclamation
After the Battle of Antietam, President Lincoln wanted to weaken the South’s ability to fight the war He issued a Proclamation called the Emancipation Proclamation This order would go into effect on January 1,1863

23 Emancipation Proclamation
In his order, Lincoln freed all the slaves living in the Confederate States In the four slave holding states still in the Union slavery was still allowed

24 Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln felt that the Emancipation Proclamation would weaken the Confederacy’s ability to carry on the War Since the slaves were needed to run the farms, if they were freed, many soldiers would return home to their farms.

25 Emancipation Proclamation
This document changed the purpose of the war At first the Union soldiers were fighting to bring the Confederate states back into the U.S. After Jan. 1, 1863, Union troops were fighting to end slavery as well as preserve the Union


27 Gettysburg-Pennsylvania
July 1863 Confederate General Robert E Lee wanted to capture the U.S. capital of Washington D.C. Moved into Pennsylvania to surprise the Union The Confederates marched 75,000 soldiers into Gettysburg The Union met their advance with 88,000 soldiers

28 Gettysburg-Pennsylvania
The Union took the high ground A three day battle followed The Confederates came on strong at first, but were outnumbered by the Union and forced to retreat several times


30 Gettysburg-Pennsylvania
Confederate General George Pickett led the final Southern assault against the middle of the Union lines Pickett’s Charge resulted in a Confederate slaughter

31 Gettysburg-Pennsylvania
At the end of the three day battle 51,000 men were dead or wounded This battle marked the turning point of the war It depleted the South’s military strength and ability to fight in the North More men fought and died at the battle of Gettysburg than any other battle, past or present, in America.

32 Gettysburg Address Four months after the battle, President Lincoln gave his most famous speech known as the Gettysburg Address when the battle field was turned into a national cemetery. In his 3 minute speech, that began “Four score and seven years ago” Lincoln discussed the principles of human equality defined by the Declaration of Independence and redefined the Civil War as a struggle not merely for the Union, but as "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens.

33 Gettysburg Address

34 Sherman’s March to the Sea
By 1864, Ulysses S Grant was in charge of the Union army and he wanted the war to end He gave orders to Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to weaken the South’s ability to fight

35 Sherman’s March to the Sea
Sherman began marching from Tennessee to Atlanta, Georgia As he marched he destroyed everything useful to the South

36 Sherman’s March to the Sea
Union soldiers were commanded to destroy food, equipment, houses, etc. that might be useful to the Confederacy Southern towns, farms. homes, businesses and railroads were destroyed This military tactic of destroying everything useful to the enemy is called total war

37 Total War


39 Sherman’s March to the Sea
Total War effected the citizens as well as the soldiers In September of 1864, Sherman captured Atlanta, Georgia and burned the city in November He then marched to the coast and did the same to Savannah, Georgia

40 The Fall of Richmond May of 1864, Union General Grant moved towards the Confederate Capital of Richmond, Virginia

41 The Fall of Richmond In Petersburg, Virginia Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee fought for 9 months against Union forces under Grant

42 The Fall of Richmond On April 9, 1865 Confederate General Robert E Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia

43 Appomattox Courthouse
The Fall of Richmond Appomattox Courthouse

44 The Civil War was over The Union won Now, the Southern States needed to be brought back into the United States

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