The Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 ► General Robert E. Lee crosses the Potomac River into Maryland – looking for supplies. ► Lee met Union General George McClelland in Antietam (both forces fought). ► Took place between the Antietam Creek & the town of Sharpsburg, Md. ► Battle ended in a draw, but was also called the “Bloodiest Day of the War” (24,000 deaths). More soldiers killed in this battle than in any other American war before…
The Battle of Gettysburg July 1, 2, & 3 1863 ► General Lee needed supplies for the Confederate Army. ► If the Confederacy could capture a major Union city, they would have a good chance to win the war. ► Robert E. Lee’s troops ran into George Meade’s troops in a small Pennsylvania town called Gettysburg. (3 days of fighting; 51,000 deaths). ► Gettysburg was the turning point in the war; the Union was now confident that they would win the war.
Chickamauga September 19 – 20, 1863 ► Union forces crossed over the Georgia border from Tennessee. ► Union General William Rosencrans led his troops against Confederate General Braxton Bragg at Chickamauga Creek. ► The Confederates won the battle, but did not follow up on the Union retreat, allowing the Union to capture Chattanooga in November, and set up for the March on Atlanta.
From Fort Sumter to the Union Blockade of the South ► The Union had military bases in Charleston South Carolina. ► The Confederacy asked the Union to give up their military base (Fort Sumter). ► After the Union refused, fighting began on April 12, 1861, and lasted two days.
Union Blockade of Southern Ports ► After the loss at Fort Sumter, Lincoln declared a naval blockade (confederate ships could not enter or leave the South). ► The purpose of the blockade was to stop resources (weapons, ammunition, clothing, and food) from entering or leaving the South.
Emancipation Proclamation September of 1862 ► President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation A document stating that unless the Confederacy surrendered, all slaves in rebelling states would be freed on January 1, 1863. ► Lincoln hoped the CSA would surrender & end the war
Sherman Heads South ► 1864 brought bad times to the South, especially Georgia ► Union General William Techumseh Sherman launched his Atlanta Campaign Several battles fought from Tennessee to Atlanta The Battle of Kennesaw Mtn. led to heavy Union losses, but did not deter the Union forces
The Atlanta Campaign & Sherman’s March to the Sea ► Sherman’s army marched into Atlanta in September of 1865 The soldiers looted the city and set it on fire on November 15 th ► Sherman divides his army into 2 columns and begins to march towards Savannah As they move along the countryside, the Union forces torch and destroy everything in their sight ► Known as “Total War” or a “Scorched Earth Policy” ► Sherman & his troops took control of Savannah in December of 1864
Sherman’s telegraph to Lincoln offering Savannah as a “gift”
Andersonville ► Confederate military prison Housed captured Union soldiers ► Approximately 45,000 men were sent here Close to 13,000 died here Highest death rate of any Civil War prison ► Conditions were horrible Overcrowded, exposure to the elements, insects, disease and malnutrition