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Goal 3: Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction

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1 Goal 3: Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction
U.S. History The Civil War Goal 3: Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction

2 The federal troops at Fort Sumter began to run out of supplies and were on the brink of starvation. Lincoln not wanting to anger the remaining Southern states in the Union decided not to supply them to avoid violence with the South.

3 Fort Sumter Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate states issued an attack on Fort Sumter. April 12, 1861, citizens of Charleston were awaken to blasts of cannons firing on the fort. After 4, 000 rounds were fired, the federal troops surrendered without a single lost of life. This was the start of the Civil War.

4 The Civil War Begins When Lincoln called for enlistments in the Federal Army after the Fort Sumter attack; Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina seceded. Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Kentucky (slaves states) stayed in the Union—counties in the west of Virginia broke away and formed West Virginia

5 North vs. South

6 The Union vs. The Confederate States of America
The Union (USA) The North Blue President: Abraham Lincoln Capital: Washington, DC Commander(s): George McClellan; Ulysses S. Grant * GOAL: preserve the Union

7 The Confederate States of America (The Confederacy) The South Grey
President: Jefferson Davis Capital: Richmond, Va. Commander: Robert E. Lee GOAL: preserve states’ rights


9 Advantages Southern Advantages
Profits from “King Cotton” provided money for the war effort Great military leaders & a strong military tradition Soldiers fighting for a “cause” who were highly motivated

10 Northern Advantages Larger population so more fighting power More factories to produce war goods More food production Extensive railroad system to transport goods and troops Lincoln was a skilled leader

11 Anaconda Plan The Union devised a three part plan to conquer the South: The Union navy would blockade Southern ports Control the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in half Capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Va.


13 Battle of Bull Run The Battle of Bull Run was fought on July 21, 1861 in Virginia Confederacy led by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (he stood firm against the Union like a “stone wall”) The South won! This was a major morale boost

14 Shiloh The Battle of Shiloh was fought on April 7, 1862 in Tennessee (considered a “western” battle) It is significant because it showed the importance of sending out scouts, digging trenches, and building forts The battle was a draw

15 Antietam The Battle of Antietam was on September 17, 1862 in Antietam, Maryland It was the bloodiest single day battle in US History Northern victory Lincoln fired Union commander George McClellan because he was too cautious and not aggressive enough

16 Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg was on July 1-3, 1863 in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania This was turning point of the war, because the South never won another battle Gettysburg Address by Lincoln united the nation after this war

17 Vicksburg The Battle of Vicksburg was fought on July 4, 1863 in Vicksburg, Mississippi Union victory! The Union accomplished its goal of cutting the Confederacy in two by seizing the Mississippi River (Anaconda Plan)

18 Appomattox Court House
On April 9, 1865, Southern commander Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia

19 William Tecumseh Sherman
Sherman was a Union commander Believed in the concept of total war (fighting the civilian population, because they helped support military effort) Sherman marched Union troops through the South, to Atlanta, burning everything in his path

20 Effects of the Civil War
Established the supremacy of federal authority over the states Eventually, slavery was abolished, through legislation (13th Amendment) No state would ever try to secede from the Union again

21 Emancipation Proclamation
Jan. 1, 1863 The Proclamation did not free any slaves immediately because it applied only to areas behind the Confederate line, outside Union control

22 Conscription a draft that would force certain members of the population to serve in the army Confederacy Draft law 1862/Union Draft law 1863. Some Southerners said this was a “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight” because Southern men could pay to have substitutes serve for them and slave owners with 20 or more slaves did not have to fight



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