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Migration Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Migration Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Migration Chapter 3

2 Key Question: What is Migration?

3 Movement Cyclic Movement – movement away from home for a short period.
Commuting Seasonal movement Nomadism Periodic Movement – movement away from home for a longer period. Migrant labor Transhumance Military service

4 Migration Migration – A change in residence that is intended to be permanent. Little Haiti, Miami, Florida

5 International Migration –
Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence).

6 Internal Migration - Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence).

7 Choose one type of cyclic or periodic movement and then think of a specific example of the kind of movement changes both the home and the destination. How do these places change as a result of this cyclic or periodic movement?

8 Key Question: Why do People Migrate?

9 Why do People Migrate? Forced Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate. Voluntary Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers respond to perceived opportunity, not force.

10 Forced Migration – the Atlantic Slave Trade

11 Atlantic Slave Trade By the Numbers
Region Number % West Indies 4,128,000 36.4 Brazil 4,000,000 35.4 Spanish Empire 2,500,000 22.1 North America/U.S. 500,000 4.4 Europe 200,000 1.8 TOTAL 11,328,000 100

12 Voluntary Migration – Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go. Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate.

13 Kinds of Voluntary Migration
Step Migration – When a migrant follows a path of a series of stages, or steps toward a final destination. * intervening opportunity –at one of the steps along the path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settle there. Chain Migration – When a migrant communicates to family and friends at home, encouraging further migration along the same path, along kinship links.

14 Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration
Most migrants move only a short distance. (Distance Decay) There is a process of absorption, whereby people immediately surrounding a rapidly growing town move into it and the gaps they leave are filled by migrants from more distant areas, and so on until the attractive force [pull factors] is spent. Each migration flow produces a compensating counter-flow. Long-distance migrants go to one of the great centers of commerce and industry. Natives of towns are less migratory than those from rural areas. Females are more migratory than males. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults. Economic factors are the main cause of migration.

15 Population 1 x Population 2
Gravity Model Spatial interaction (such as migration) Directly Related to the Populations Inversely Related to the Distance Between Them Population 1 x Population 2 Distance Between Them

16 Types of Push and Pull Factors
Economic Conditions Political Circumstances Armed Conflict and Civil War Environmental Conditions Culture and Traditions Technological Advances

17 Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind.

18 Environmental Conditions –
In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.

19 Think about a migration flow within your family, whether internal, international, voluntary, or forced. The flow can be one you experienced or one you only heard about through family. List the push and pull factors. Then, write a letter in the first person (if you were not involved, pretend you were your grandmother or whomever) to another family member at “home” describing how you came to migrate to your destination.

20 Where do People Migrate?
Key Question: Where do People Migrate?

21 Global Migration Flows
Between 1500 and 1950, major global migration flows were influenced largely by: Exploration Colonization The Atlantic Slave Trade Impacts the place the migrants leave and where the migrants go.

22 Major Global Migration Flows
From 1500 to 1950

23 Regional Migration Flows
Migrants go to neighboring countries: - for short term economic opportunities. - to reconnect with cultural groups across borders. - to flee political conflict or war.

24 Economic Opportunities
Islands of Development – Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated.

25 Economic Opportunities
In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.

26 Reconnecting Cultural Groups
About 700,000 Jews migrated to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948. After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories.

27 Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank.

28 National Migration Flows
Also known as internal migration - eg. US, Russia, Mexico

29 Guest Workers Guest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides. - have short term work visas - send remittances to home country

30 Refugees A person who flees across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.

31 Regions of Dislocation – What regions generate the most refugees?
Subsaharan Africa North Africa and Southwest Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Europe

32 The Sudan – Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan has generated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, the Iridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugees from the Darfur province, including the women in this photo.

33 Imagine you are from an extremely poor country, and you earn less than $1 a day. Choose a country to be from, and look for it on a map. Assume you are a voluntary migrant. You look at your access to transportation and the opportunities you have to go elsewhere. Be realistic, and describe how you determine where you will go, how you get there, and what you do once you get there.

34 How do Governments Affect Migration?
Key Question: How do Governments Affect Migration?

35 Governments Place Legal Restrictions on Migration
Immigration laws – laws that restrict or allow migration of certain groups into a country. Quotas limit the number of migrants from each region into a country. A country uses selective immigration to bar people with certain backgrounds from entering.

36 Waves of Immigration Changing immigration laws, and changing push and pull factors create waves of immigration.

37 Post-September 11

38 One goal of international organizations involved in aiding refugees is repatriation – return of the refugees to their home countries once the threat against them has passed. Take the example of Sudanese refugees. Think about how their land and their lives have changed since they became refugees. You are assigned the daunting task of repatriating Sudanese from Uganda once a peace solution is reached. What steps would you have to take to re-discover a home for these refugees?

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