3 Two types of Migration: Forced Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.Voluntary Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers respond to perceived opportunity, not force.
4 Forced Migration Atlantic Slave Trade: largest and most devastating. Early 16th century to work on sugar plantations.Forced into the US, Caribbean, Central America, and Brazil.Never can measure the loss to Africa civilization as a result.
6 Forced MigrationMajority of people in the Caribbean are of African descent.For 50 years Great Britain shipped convicts to Australia.In the 1800s the US gov’t took land from Native Americans and forced them into other areas.In the 1920’s under Stalin’s rule moved millions of non-Russians to central Asia and Siberia.In the 1930’s the Nazi’s were responsible for the forced migration of Jews from western Europe.
7 Forced Migration Still happens today. Counter-migration: govt’s detain migrants who enter/attempt to enter their countries illegally and return the migrants to their home countries. Ex: HaitiansAfghanistan: for 30 years nearly 10 million have bee refugees fleeing to Pakistan and Iran.
9 Ernst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migration” 1885 he studied the migration of England Most migrants go only a short distance.Big cities attract long distance migrants.Most migration is step-by-step.Most migration is rural to urbanEach migration flow produces a counterflow.Most migrants are adults-families are less likely to make international moves.Most international migrants are young males.Migrants do not represent a cross section of their place of origin.Today in the US young people in their 20s are the most mobile.Today 40-60% of migrants are women and girls so the young males rule is less valid today than it wasToday the rural to urban migration pattern is true of the periphery, but not the core
10 Voluntary Migration –Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go.Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate.
11 Push and Pull FactorsPush factors: conditions and perceptions that help a migrant decide to leave.(work and retirement conditions cost ofliving, safety, envr. And political issues)Pull Factors: circumstances that attract migrants to certain areas.(based on perceptions and what they’veheard)
12 Kinds of Voluntary Migration Step Migration –When a migrant follows a path of a series of stages, or steps toward a final destination.* intervening opportunity –at one of the steps alongthe path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settlethere.Chain Migration –When a migrant communicates to family and friends at home, encouraging further migration along the same path, along kinship links.
13 Catalysts of Migration (Push-Pull Factors-push factors induce people to leave. Pull factors encourage people to move to an area.)Economic conditions-poverty and a desire for opportunity.Political conditions-persecution, expulsion, or war.Environmental conditions-crop failures, floods, drought, environmentally induced famine.Culture and tradition-threatened by change.Technology-easier and cheaper transport or change in livability.Poverty has driven millions from their homelands-North America has received many legal and illegal immigrants from Mediterranean, Caribbean, across the Rio GrandePolitical-oppressive regimes-Mariel Boatlift from Cuba 125,000, Boat People from Vietnam in 1970s and 80s.Armed Conflict-War-Rwanda-militant Hutus versus minority Tutsi and moderate Hutus-600,000 died in out migration-2 million fled to ZaireEnvironmental-potato famine 1840s Ireland, also floods, drought, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.Threat to Culture and Tradition-India-Pakistan, Millions fled, Soviet Jews fled to Israel.Technological advances-easier and cheaper to sail or fly, also air-conditioning made south and southwest US more desirable.Photo is of Italian Immigrants at Ellis Island, New York in 1905.
14 Economic Conditions –Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind.
15 Environmental Conditions – In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
16 Economic Opportunities Islands of Development –Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated.
17 Economic Opportunities In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.
18 Reconnecting Cultural Groups About 700,000 Jews migrated to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948.After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories.
19 Think about a migration flow within your family, whether internal, international, voluntary, or forced. The flow can be one you experienced or one you only heard about through family. List the push and pull factors. Then, write a letter in the first person (if you were not involved, pretend you were your grandmother or whomever) to another family member at “home” describing how you came to migrate to your destination.
20 Where do People Migrate? Key Question:Where do People Migrate?
21 Global Migration Flows Between 1500 and 1950, major global migration flows were influenced largely by:ExplorationColonizationThe Atlantic Slave TradeImpacts the place the migrants leave and where the migrants go.
23 Regional Migration Flows Migrants go to neighboring countries:- for short term economic opportunities.- to reconnect with cultural groupsacross borders.- to flee political conflict or war.
24 Economic Opportunities Islands of Development –Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated.
25 Economic Opportunities In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.
26 Reconnecting Cultural Groups About 700,000 Jews migrated to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948.After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories.
27 Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank.
28 National Migration Flows Also known as internal migration- eg. US, Russia, Mexico
29 Guest WorkersGuest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides.- have short term work visas- send remittances to home country
30 RefugeesA person who flees across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.
31 Regions of Dislocation – What regions generate the most refugees? Subsaharan AfricaNorth Africa and Southwest AsiaSouth AsiaSoutheast AsiaEurope
32 The Sudan –Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan has generated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, the Iridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugees from the Darfur province, including the women in this photo.
33 Imagine you are from an extremely poor country, and you earn less than $1 a day. Choose a country to be from, and look for it on a map. Assume you are a voluntary migrant. You look at your access to transportation and the opportunities you have to go elsewhere. Be realistic, and describe how you determine where you will go, how you get there, and what you do once you get there.
34 How do Governments Affect Migration? Key Question:How do Governments Affect Migration?
35 Governments Place Legal Restrictions on Migration Immigration laws – laws that restrict or allow migration of certain groups into a country.Quotas limit the number of migrants from each region into a country.A country uses selective immigration to bar people with certain backgrounds from entering.
36 Waves of ImmigrationChanging immigration laws, and changing push and pull factors create waves of immigration.
38 One goal of international organizations involved in aiding refugees is repatriation – return of the refugees to their home countries once the threat against them has passed. Take the example of Sudanese refugees. Think about how their land and their lives have changed since they became refugees. You are assigned the daunting task of repatriating Sudanese from Uganda once a peace solution is reached. What steps would you have to take to re-discover a home for these refugees?