2 Little Haiti, Miami, Florida MigrationMigration: a change in residence that is intended to be permanent.Emigration: leaving a country.Immigration: entering a country.Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
3 Types of MigrationForced Migration: migrants have no choice – they must leave.Periodic Movement: short term (weeks or months) seasonal migration to college, winter in the South, etc.Forced Migration examples-African Slave Tradee.g. Trail of Tears in the 19th Cent./India-Pakistan Border/German-Polish Border after WWII/Blacks forced into Homeland during ApartheidReluctant Migration-1969 Indonesian government aggressive campaign to move people from densely populated Java to other islands and territories-”biggest colonization program in history”Periodic Movement-off to college, vacation, military service, migrant workers.Cyclical Movement-commuting to work, school, shopping or visiting friends-activity space is increasing as technology makes travel faster and cheaper. Many Americans’ daily commute is farther than many Chinese peasants will travel in a year.Transhumance-in Switzerland livestock and herders travel up the mountain as the season progresses to take advantage of fresh pasture. Horn of Africa-hundreds of thousands follow livestock hers from lowland to highland and back.Nomadism-cyclical migration that is irregular in arid or semiarid areas-seasonal changes determine the location of herds, flocks and their caretakers-Masai of East Africa have a village that they return to for the rainy season-even grow crops there-when the drought begins, the pack and move.Commuter train in Soweto,South Africa
4 Types of Migration Cyclic movement: daily movement to work, shopping. Transhumance: seasonal pastoral farming-Switzerland, Horn of Africa.Nomadism: cyclical, yet irregular migration that follows the growth of vegetation.
5 Another example of Forced Migration From 12 to 30 million Africans were forced from their homelands in the 18th century. It took generations to restore the population balance.
6 Catalysts of Migration Push-Pull FactorsPush factors induce people to leavePull factors encourage people to move to an area
7 Catalysts of Migration Economic conditionspoverty and a desire for opportunityhas driven millions from their homelandsNorth America has received many legal and illegal immigrants from Mediterranean, Caribbean, across the Rio GrandePolitical conditionspersecution, expulsion, or waroppressive regimes- Mariel Boatlift from Cuba 125,000, Boat People from Vietnam in 1970s and 80sArmed Conflict-WarRwanda-militant Hutus versus minority Tutsi and moderate Hutus-600,000 died in out migration-2 million fled to ZairePoverty has driven millions from their homelands-North America has received many legal and illegal immigrants from Mediterranean, Caribbean, across the Rio GrandePolitical-oppressive regimes-Mariel Boatlift from Cuba 125,000, Boat People from Vietnam in 1970s and 80s.Armed Conflict-War-Rwanda-militant Hutus versus minority Tutsi and moderate Hutus-600,000 died in out migration-2 million fled to ZaireEnvironmental-potato famine 1840s Ireland, also floods, drought, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.Threat to Culture and Tradition-India-Pakistan, Millions fled, Soviet Jews fled to Israel.Technological advances-easier and cheaper to sail or fly, also air-conditioning made south and southwest US more desirable.Photo is of Italian Immigrants at Ellis Island, New York in 1905.
8 Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind.60% of all illegals in the US are from Mexico-about 12 millionAs of Nov. 07 Mexican government report concluded that the continued low wages & social inequality will generate out migration to the US of roughly 500,000 per year for next 15 years.Jan. 08 last restrictions on imports of corn, beans and wheat will be lifted as required by NAFTA-imports of highly subsidized food from US & Canadian agribusinesses have driven millions of people out of rural Mexico.Mexico’s problem-it is ruled by an oligarchy of rich families in a system of hyper-crony capitalism-unfortunately NAFTA has only reinforced this system.The dirty little secret of Mexican out-migration is that it is encouraged by the oligarch run government as a safety valve. The wife of a high ranking Mexican official stated “If the Americans seal the border, there will be revolution here.”From Jeff Faux’s article What to Really Do About Immigration, American Prospect. Jan/Feb 2008
9 Most illegal immigrants are Mexicans, but a growing number Are from Central and South America, like the men waitingOutside of “Bar Honduras” in Nuevo Laredo.
10 A massive dump site in Arizona’s Upper Altar Valley A massive dump site in Arizona’s Upper Altar Valley. After walking 40 miles through the desert, illegal immigrants are met here by coyotes. They are told to dump their old clothes & packs and put on more “American” looking clothes the coyotes have brought. They then begin the trip to an urban stash house.
12 Environmental Conditions –In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
13 Catalysts of Migration Culture and traditionthreatened by changeMillions fled India for Pakistan, Soviet Jews fled to IsraelTechnological advanceseasier and cheaper to sail or flyair-conditioning made south and southwest US more desirable.
14 Reconnecting Cultural Groups About 700,000 Jews migrated to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948.After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories.
15 Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank.
16 Pull Factors Same as push factors, but positively Ex: United States Plenty of economic opportunityPolitically freeTemperate climateMelting pot of cultureTechnologically advanced
17 Economic Opportunities Islands of Development –Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated.
18 Economic Opportunities In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.
19 Voluntary Migration – Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go.Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate.
20 RefugeesA person who flees across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.
21 Characteristics of Refugees Move with only what they can carry or easily transport.Most move first on foot, bicycle, wagon or open boat-very low tech. transport.Most have no official documentation such as passports, identification or other official papers.
22 Ernst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migration” 1885 he studied the migration of England Most migrants go only a short distance.Big cities attract long distance migrants.Most migration is step-by-step.Most migration is rural to urbanEach migration flow produces a counterflow.Most migrants are adults-families are less likely to make international moves.Most international migrants are young males.Migrants do not represent a cross section of their place of origin.Today in the US young people in their 20s are the most mobile.Today 40-60% of migrants are women and girls so the young males rule is less valid today than it wasToday the rural to urban migration pattern is true of the periphery, but not the core
23 Continued…Today in the US young people in their 20s are the most mobile.Today 40-60% of migrants are women and girls so the young males rule is less valid today than it was
24 Migrants face obstacles Quota Laws-limit the number of immigrants from a particular countryToday: 480,000 family-sponsored immigrants plus 140,000 employment-related immigrantsBrain Drain: preference is given to educated immigrants thus causing a lack in their home countries
25 Guest Workers or Time-Contract Workers Guest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides.- have short term work visas- send remittances to home countryOnly recently has Germany allowed the Turks-now 2nd or 3rd generation-to become German citizensNigeria kicked out its guest workersIndonesia pulled out its many citizens in the Middle East before the 2003 Iraq War
26 ExamplesOnly recently has Germany allowed the Turks-now 2nd or 3rd generation-to become German citizensNigeria kicked out its guest workersIndonesia pulled out its many citizens in the Middle East before the 2003 Iraq War
27 Cultural ProblemsU.S. attitudes toward immigrants
30 Article Questions Describe the Tuareg culture. Why do the Tuareg continuously migrate?Why has the country of Mali pushed the Tuareg out?How has climate affected migration?What political migration issues do the Tuareg now face?