Presentation on theme: "WORLD GEOGRAPHY Sept. 23, 2014. Today Migration (part 1) - Background - Migration defined - Reasons for migration - Where are people going? - Government."— Presentation transcript:
Movement models Zelinsky’s Mobility Transition Model – Links stages of movement to development.
Zelinsky’s Mobility Transition Model Phase 1 – Pre Modern – Ancient world, slow growth movement to cities. Phase 2 – Early Transition – Massive movement to cities. Phase 3 – Late Transition - Massive but slackened movement to cities. Phase 4 – Advanced Society – Cities have grown and more have appeared. Movement to cites is leveling off. Phase 5 – Future Super-advanced society – Countryside mostly gone, movement inter city now.
Movement models Stouffer’s Intervening Opportunities - # of Migrants is related to # of opportunities. “The number of persons going a given distance is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at that distance and inversely proportional to the number of intervening opportunities.”
Movement models Lee’s Laws of Migration – 4 factors that make people migrate. 1. Factors linked to destination. 2. Factors associated with the area of origins of migrants. 3. Obstacles between origin and destination. 4. Personal Factors. Essentially: push and pull factors
Migration defined Textbook discusses movement vs. migration - Cyclic movement - Periodic movement - Migration All three involve mobility/movement, but differ in regards to permanence.
Movement Cyclic Movement: short periods away from home. e.g. -Your daily routine (home-school- work- home) - Nomadism: moving from place to place
Cyclic movement – activity spaces Nomadic life in Mongolia
Movement Periodic Movement: long periods away from home. e.g. - Attending university in another city - Military service - Transhumance - Migrant workers (e.g. foreign “3D” workers in Korea) - Canadian oil field workers
Movement - Cyclic Movement: short periods away from home. e.g. your daily routine (home-school-home) - Periodic Movement: long periods away from home. e.g. attending university in another city Canadian oil field workers Only thing these two types of movement have in common with migration is just movement. People who migrate may never return to their origin.
Migration Movement that results in permanent relocation across significant distances. - Can involve an individual, household, or larger group to a new location outside the community of origin. - The mover(s) may never return home.
Types of migration International Migration – also called external migration. Move from one country to another. When someone migrates out of a country = emigrant. When someone migrates into a country = immigrant. Internal Migration – move within a country.
Types of migration - mobility Mobility depends on several factors (social, economic, technological). Internal migration: Overall trend is rural to urban, but depends on the country (e.g. Peru vs. U.S. vs. China).
Reasons for migrating Types of migration: Forced Migration – involuntary move. - e.g. Atlantic Slave Trade Today: counter-immigration Voluntary Migration – choices or options make the migrant choose to move to the land. - e.g. Colonists, Me - Push and Pull factors,
Reasons for migrating - Ravenstein Laws of migration
Reasons for migrating - Ravenstein Laws of migration 1. Every migration flow generates a counter-migration. e.g. – Colonists and Natives or city gets too crowded. 2.Majority of migrants move a short distance. 3. Migrants who move long distances usually move to big cities. 4. Urban residents are less likely to migrate than rural folk. 5. Families are less likely to make international moves then young adults.
Reasons for migrating – Gravity model The gravity model is used to predict the movement of people, commodities, and ideas between two places. - Larger places attract people, ideas, and commodities more than smaller places. - Places closer together have a greater attraction.
Reasons for migrating – Push & Pull Push factors – factors in “leaving” a place. - usually more accurately perceived. Pull factors – factors in “going” to a place. - often vague (sometimes “fantasy”) related to distance decay: farther you move away from your origin, may be harder to function in your new home. e.g. – culture, language.
Reasons for migrating – Push & Pull - Economic conditions - Power relationships (gender, ethnicity, money) - Political circumstances - Armed conflict, civil war - Environmental conditions - Culture and traditions - Technological advances
Push & Pull – economic conditions - Haiti, U.S.
Push & Pull – power relationships - Cultural perceptions
Push & Pull – political circumstances e.g. Vietnamese “boat people” (almost 800,000)
Push & Pull – Environmental conditions Hurricane Katrina (2005) – city of New Orleans – 40% popn.
Reasons for migrating Kinship links – family or friends find success in foreign land, motivates you to do the same there. Chain Migration – kinship links expand, chains of family and friends communicate to others from their original homeland to migrate over. Groups of people migrate. Immigration waves – swells in migration from one origin to the same destination.