2 Migration Big Ideas Types of Movement – Cyclic, Periodic, & Migration Types of Migration – Forced & VoluntaryRovenstein’s Laws of MigrationGravity ModelPush and Pull FactorsPolitical migrantsDistance decayIntervening ObstaclesMigration FlowsGuest WorkersUS Migration Patterns
3 Types of movement Cyclic movement Periodic movement Migration Shorter periods away from homeCommuting, Seasonal Movement, NomadismPeriodic movementLonger periods away from homeMigrant Labor, Transhumance, Military ServiceMigrationInvolves a degree of permanenceInternational, internal
4 Types of Migration Forced Migration Voluntary Migration Involves the imposition of authority or powerInvoluntary migration movementsVoluntary MigrationOccurs after a migrant weighs options and choicesDistinction between the two is not always clear-cut.European migration to the US 19th to 20th centuries - voluntaryIrish migration to the US mid 1800s – forced (harsh British rule laws)
6 Types of Voluntary Migration Step MigrationA series of shorter less extreme migrations from a persons place of origin to a final destinationIntervening opportunity – pull factors at one of the steps that encourages the migrant to settle.Chain MigrationA series of migrations within a family or defined group of people.Begins with one family member who sends money to bring other members to the new location.
7 Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration British demographerWhy do people voluntarily migrate?Proposed several laws of migrationEvery migration generates a return or counter migrationThe majority of migrants move a short distanceMigrants who move longer distances tend to choose big- city destinationsUrban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areasFamilies are less likely to make international moves than young adults
8 Gravity modelNumber of migrants to a destination declines as the distance traveled increasesModel assumes that spatial interaction is directly related to the populations and inversely related to the distance between them.Computation: Multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them.
9 Push and Pull factors Why do people choose to migrate? Three major types of push and pull factorsPoliticalEnvironmentalEconomic
10 Political Oppressive government Conflict & Civil war 1975 – Vietnamese migrants1972 – Expelled Asian and Ugandans of Asian descent1980 – Cuba “Mariel Boatlift”Conflict & Civil war1990 – YugoslaviaMid-1990s – RwandaCultures & Traditions1947 – Partition of India & Pakistan1990s – Jews migrate from Soviet UnionMid-1990s – White South Afrikaners
11 Forced political migrants United Nations High Commissions for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes three groupsRefugee – has been forced to migrate to avoid a potential threat to his/her life. Cannot return for fear of persecutionInternally displaced person (IDP) – similar to refugee. Has not migrated across an international border.Asylum seeker – someone who has migrated to another country in hopes of being recognized as a refugee.
14 Economic Better job opportunities Poverty US and Canada have been prominent destinations for economic migrants.Most recently Latin America and Asia are primary senders for economic reasons.
15 Distance Decay Comes into play with pull factors of migration Migrants likely to have more complete perceptions of nearer places than of farther ones.Leads many migrants to move to a locale closer to home than they originally contemplated.
16 Intervening Obstacles Hinder migrationHistorically, environmentalMountain, Oceans, distance, etc.Modern, politicalProper documentation to leave and/or enter countries
17 Global Migration Flows Between 1500 & 1950, major global migration flows were influenced largely byExplorationColonizationThe Atlantic Slave Trade
20 Regional Migration Flow Migrants go to neighboring countriesShort term economic opportunitiesReconnect with cultural groups across bordersFlee political conflict or war
21 Economic opportunities Islands of DevelopmentPlaces within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentratedChinese migration to SE Asia (Late 1800s to Early 1900s)Work in trade, commerce, and financing
22 Reconnect cultural groups Between 1900 to 1948About 700,000 Jewish migration to then-PalestineAfter 1948600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly designated Israeli territories.
23 National Migration Flows Also known as internal migrationUSAfrican Americans moved north during early 20th centuryAttraction of the “sunbelt” regionChinaRural workers move to larger cities
24 Guest Workers Migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need Assume the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsidesShort term work visasSend remittances to home country
25 U.S. Immigration Patterns More foreign-born residents than any other countryApprox. 43 million as of 2010Three main erasColonial settlement in 17th & 18th centuriesMass European immigration in the late 19th & early 20th centuriesAsian & Latin American integration in the late 20th and early 21st centuries