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MIGRATION Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "MIGRATION Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 MIGRATION Chapter 3

2 What Is Migration? Movement
Cyclic movement: Movement away from home for a short period Commuting Seasonal movement Nomadism Periodic movement: Movement away from home for a longer period. Migrant labor Transhumance Military service Migration: A change in residence intended to be permanent

3 International migration:
Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence)

4 Internal migration: Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence)

5 Why Do People Migrate? Forced migration: Movers have no choice but to relocate

6 Kinds of Voluntary Migration
Step migration: When a migrant follows a series of stages, or steps, toward a final destination. Intervening opportunity : At one of the steps along the path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settle there Chain migration: Further migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled

7 Voluntary Migration Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide
Whether to move Where to go Distance decay: Many migrants settle closer to their old home than they originally contemplate

8 Ravenstein’s Laws (Gravity Model)
Every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration. The majority of migrations move a short distance. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.

9 Push and Pull Factors Legal status Economic conditions
Power relationships Political circumstances Armed conflict and civil war Environmental conditions Culture and traditions Technological advances

10 Where Do People Migrate?
Influences on major global migration flows from 1550–1950 Exploration Colonization The Atlantic slave trade Impacts Places migrants leave Places to which migrants go

11 Major Global Migration Flows
(before 1950)

12 Regional Migration Flows
Migration to neighboring countries  For short term economic opportunities  To reconnect with cultural groups across borders  To flee political conflict or war Islands of development: Places where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated

13 Migration for Economic Opportunity
Chinese migration in late 1800s and 1900s throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance

14 Migration to Reconnect with Cultural Groups
Migration of about 700,000 Jews to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948 Forced migration of 600,000 Palestinian Arabs after 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine)

15 Internal Migration Flows

16 Guest Workers Migrants allowed into a country to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides  Have short term work visas  Send remittances to home country

17 Refugees People who flee across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion

18 Regions of Dislocation
Subsaharan Africa North Africa and Southwest Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Europe

19 How Do Governments Affect Migration?
Immigration laws U.S. history Little restriction Quotas by nationality Selective immigration

20 Post–September 11

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