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Population and Migration

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1 Population and Migration
Unit 2

2 Where in the World do People Live and Why?
Key Question: Where in the World do People Live and Why?

3 Many Ways of Measuring Population:
Population Density – measure of total population relative to land size (arithmetic population density).

4 World Population Density

5 Populations are falling in some parts of the world. How will Figure 2
Populations are falling in some parts of the world. How will Figure 2.5 look different 50 years from now? If you were updating this textbook in 50 years, where would the largest population clusters in the world be?

6 Why do Populations Rise or Fall in Particular Places?

7 A Population Bomb? Malthus (early 1800s) worried about population growing exponentially and resources growing linearly. Ehrlich (1960s) warned of a population bomb because the world’s population was outpacing food production.


9 World Population Growth –
Rate of natural increase (does not take into account immigration and emigration).

10 Today, the pace of world population growth is slowing
Today, the pace of world population growth is slowing. Where have Total Fertility Rates (TFRs) fallen below replacement level and why?

11 Population Growth in India
Significant demographic variations occur within countries. In India, growth rates are higher in the east and northeast.

12 Why do Growth Rates Vary in India?
1960s population planning program 1970s country began forced sterilization program for men with 3 or more children. 22.5 million men were sterilized. 2004 state of Uttar Pradesh began guns for sterilization program. Today, most states use advertising and persuasion to lower birth rates.

13 Maharashtra, India. A sign reads “free family planning sterlization operation” closed in 1996.

14 The Demographic Transition in Great Britain
Studied the change in birth rates, death rates, and natural growth rates over the course of British industrialization. Found a transition occurred when death rates decline and then birth rates decline, resulting in a low or sustained growth rate.

15 World Birth Rate – number of births in a year per 1,000 people.

16 World Mortality Rate – number of deaths in a year per 1,000 people.

17 The Demographic Transition

18 The Demographic Transition
Stage 1: Low Growth Stage 2: High Growth Stage 3: Moderate Growth Stage 4: Low Growth or Stationary Stationary population level (SPL)?

19 Why does Population Composition Matter?

20 Population Composition
Population Composition is concerned with: Gender distribution Age distribution within a country, region, or place.

21 Population Pyramids – Charts that show the percentages of each age group in the total population, divided by gender. For poorer countries, the chart is shaped like a pyramid. Infant mortality rates are high, life expectancy is shorter.

22 In poorer countries, Infant Mortality Rates are usually high, which is reflected in the pyramid shape.

23 In poorer countries, Life Expectancy is usually shorter, which is also reflected in the pyramid shape.

24 Affect of AIDS on population pyramid for South Africa.
Predicted population for 2035, without and with AIDS. With AIDS, looks like a population “chimney.”

25 AIDS is leaving large numbers of AIDS orphans.

26 AIDS is creating large numbers of AIDS care-givers.
Drawing by a Pokot boy in Kenya, the drawing shows him working in the fields and taking care of his family cattle in order to assist his sick family members.

27 Population Pyramids – Charts that show the percentages of each age group in the total population, divided by gender. For wealthier countries, the chart is shaped like a lopsided vase. Population is aging, TFRs are declining.

28 Age Structure of a Population
The populations of many countries are aging. - eg. Europe - eg. Japan Bordeaux, France Photo credit: H.J. de Blij

29 Aging Populations To replace the population, TFR must be 2.1.
- TFR in Bologna, Italy is 0.8 - Why are women having fewer children? What are the impacts of an aging population on a country? What are the “solutions” to an aging population?

30 Longer Life Expectancies typically mean higher rates of chronic diseases.

31 In the United States, the national infant mortality rate (IMR) is 7
In the United States, the national infant mortality rate (IMR) is 7.0. That number represents an average for the country. Think about the differences in IMR in the United States across regions, ethnicities, social classes, and other sectors.

32 How do Governments Affect Population Change?

33 Government Population Policies
Expansive Population Policies - Encourages population growth. Eugenic Population Policies - Favors one racial or cultural sector over others. Restrictive Population Policies - range from toleration of unapproved birth control to outright prohibition of large families.

34 China’s One Child Policy
What are some of the limitations, unintended consequences, and contradictions found in government policies toward population growth?

35 When studying government policies on population, one of the most important things to remember is unintended consequences. Choose one country in the world where women have little access to education and are disempowered. Consider the previous section of the chapter on age composition, and determine how restrictive population policies in this country will alter the population composition of the country.

36 Migration Chapter 3

37 What is Migration?

38 Movement Cyclic Movement – movement away from home for a short period.
Commuting Seasonal movement Nomadism Periodic Movement – movement away from home for a longer period. Migrant labor Transhumance Military service

39 Migration Migration – A change in residence that is intended to be permanent. Little Haiti, Miami, Florida

40 International Migration –
Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence).

41 Internal Migration - Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence).

42 Why do People Migrate?

43 Why do People Migrate? Forced Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate. Voluntary Migration – Human migration flows in which the movers respond to perceived opportunity, not force.

44 Forced Migration – the Atlantic Slave Trade

45 Voluntary Migration – Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go. Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate.

46 Kinds of Voluntary Migration
Step Migration – When a migrant follows a path of a series of stages, or steps toward a final destination. * intervening opportunity –at one of the steps along the path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settle there. Chain Migration – When a migrant communicates to family and friends at home, encouraging further migration along the same path, along kinship links.

47 Types of Push and Pull Factors
Economic Conditions Political Circumstances Armed Conflict and Civil War Environmental Conditions Culture and Traditions Technological Advances

48 Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind.

49 Environmental Conditions –
In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.

50 Think about a migration flow within your family, whether internal, international, voluntary, or forced. The flow can be one you experienced or one you only heard about through family. List the push and pull factors. Then, write a letter in the first person (if you were not involved, pretend you were your grandmother or whomever) to another family member at “home” describing how you came to migrate to your destination.

51 Where do People Migrate?

52 Global Migration Flows
Between 1500 and 1950, major global migration flows were influenced largely by: Exploration Colonization The Atlantic Slave Trade Impacts the place the migrants leave and where the migrants go.

53 Major Global Migration Flows
From 1500 to 1950

54 Regional Migration Flows
Migrants go to neighboring countries: - for short term economic opportunities. - to reconnect with cultural groups across borders. - to flee political conflict or war.

55 Economic Opportunities
Islands of Development – Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated.

56 Economic Opportunities
In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.

57 Reconnecting Cultural Groups
About 700,000 Jews migrated to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948. After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories.

58 Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank.

59 National Migration Flows
Also known as internal migration - eg. US, Russia, Mexico

60 Guest Workers Guest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides. - have short term work visas - send remittances to home country

61 Refugees A person who flees across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.

62 Regions of Dislocation – What regions generate the most refugees?
Subsaharan Africa North Africa and Southwest Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Europe

63 The Sudan – Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan has generated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, the Iridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugees from the Darfur province, including the women in this photo.

64 Imagine you are from an extremely poor country, and you earn less than $1 a day. Choose a country to be from, and look for it on a map. Assume you are a voluntary migrant. You look at your access to transportation and the opportunities you have to go elsewhere. Be realistic, and describe how you determine where you will go, how you get there, and what you do once you get there.

65 How do Governments Affect Migration?

66 Governments Place Legal Restrictions on Migration
Immigration laws – laws that restrict or allow migration of certain groups into a country. Quotas limit the number of migrants from each region into a country. A country uses selective immigration to bar people with certain backgrounds from entering.

67 Waves of Immigration Changing immigration laws, and changing push and pull factors create waves of immigration.

68 Post-September 11

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