2 What Is Migration? Movement Cyclic movement: Movement away from home for a short periodCommutingSeasonal movementNomadismPeriodic movement: Movement away from home for a longer period.Migrant laborTranshumanceMilitary serviceMigration: A change in residence intended to be permanent
3 Ravenstein’s LawsEvery migration flow generates a return or countermigration.The majority of migrations move a short distance.Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations.Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.
4 Migration Transition Mirrors demographic transition Stage 1- little migrationStage 2international migrationIntraregional (rural to urban)Stage 3 & 4internal migrationBecome destinations for migration
5 Distance of Migration International migration- country to country Voluntary- choice----Forced- cultural violence
6 Why Do People Migrate?Forced migration: Movers have no choice but to relocate
7 Kinds of Voluntary Migration Step migration: When a migrant follows a series of stages, or steps, toward a final destination.
8 Intervening opportunity : At one of the steps along the path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settle there
9 Chain migration: Further migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled
10 Voluntary Migration Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide Whether to moveWhere to goDistance decay: Many migrants settle closer to their old home than they originally contemplate
11 Push vs Pull Factors Push Factors: Elements that induce or encourage a person to migrate or move out of their present location.Pull Factors:Elements that induce or encourage a person to migrate or move into a new location.Either can be economic, environmental, cultural or political.Question: Describe a push factor that explains why people leave Mexico.Describe a pull factor that explains why people are pulled to US.
12 Global Migration Patterns Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.
13 International migration: Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence)
14 Distance of Migration Internal migration- movement within a country Interregional- region to regionIntraregional- within a region (urban to rural)(country to city)
15 Internal migration:Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence)Inter / intra prefix
19 Major Global Migration Flows U.S. Eras of ImmigrationColonial (17th-18th)Mass European Immigration (19th-20th)Asian and Latin American Migration (20th-21st)Major Global Migration FlowsFrom 1500 to 1950
20 Waves of ImmigrationSwitch from Europe to Lat AM., Asia & AfricaPotato FaminePost WWII IsolationismPort. Sp. It.Rus. & PolScanIre, Ger.,& GBGreat DepressionChanging immigration laws, and changing push and pull factors create waves of immigration.
21 Migration to U.S., by region of origin Fig. 3-4: Most migrants to the U.S. were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America and Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.