Matakuliah: G0922/Introduction to Linguistics Tahun: 2008 Session 2 Phonology.
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Matakuliah: G0922/Introduction to Linguistics Tahun: 2008 Session 2 Phonology
Bina Nusantara University 2 Learning Outcomes By the end of this meeting, students are able to - mention the organ of speech - show the position of articulators - mention the places of articulators - show the difference between spelling and pronunciation
Bina Nusantara University 3 Outline –Organ of Speech –Articulators –Sound Producing System –Places of Articulation –Relation between spelling and pronunciation
Bina Nusantara University 4 Organ of Speech The main organ of speech: The jaw The lips The teeth The teeth ridge (alveolar ridge) The tongue The hard palate The soft palate (velum) The uvula The pharynx The larynx The vocal cords
Bina Nusantara University 5 Sound Producing System Sound could not occur without air. The air that comes from the lungs produces egressive sounds, while sounds made by sucking the air are called ingressive sounds. Air stream from the lungs, passes through the larynx (Adam’s apple), vibrate the vocal cords through the mouth.
Bina Nusantara University 6 Sound Producing System Five position of vocal cords: 1. Wide open for deep breathing 2. Open for voiceless sounds 3. Approximated an vibrating for voiced sounds. 4. Narrowed for whispering 5. Closed for glottal plosive
Bina Nusantara University 8 Relation between spelling and pronunciation Alphabetic spelling represents the pronunciation of words Orthography does not represent the sounds of the words in a language systematically Each distinct sound must be given a distinct symbol to represent it. Examples: e, ie, ae, ee, eo, ei all represent the sound /i/ Examples: the letter ‘a’ represent several sounds in father, wanted, many, a, village, dame, badly.