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Chapter 2 Introduction to articulatory phonetics

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1 Chapter 2 Introduction to articulatory phonetics
PHONOLOGY (Lane 335)

2 Articulatory phonetics
Humans produce different kinds of sounds, not all related to language (e.g, coughing, burping) Major aspects of speech production: airstreams mechanism state of the vocal cords state of the velum place & manner of articulation

3 Speech Organs

4 Airstream Mechanism All sounds are made with some movements of air
The basic source of power is the lungs The air goes up the windpipe (trachea) and into the larynx and out of the body through the vocal tract (i.e. mouth or nose) ‘pulmonic egressive’ (= from the lungs outwards)

5 Airstream Mechanism Pulmonic egressive- all human languages
Pulmonic ingressove- not found Velaric egressive- not found Velaric ingressive- e,g, Zulu Glottalic egressive- e.g, Navajo Glottalic ingressive- e.g, Sindhi

6 The vocal cords Their outer edges are attached to muscle in the larynx while their inner edges are free. If the back end of the vocal folds are held apart, a triangular space opens up between them. The space is called glottis.

7 The vocal cords

8 State of the vocal cords
Adjustments of the glottis is very crucial in speech production positions 1) Open glottis, i.e. the folds are apart normal breathing voiceless sounds [sssssssssss] and [ffffffffffffffffff]

9 State of the vocal cords
Open glottis

10 State of the vocal cords
Open glottis

11 State of the vocal cords cont.
2) Narrow glottis: i.e. held gently together The air from the lungs forces its way through them causing the folds to vibrate. Voiced sounds [zzzzzzzz], [vvvvvvvvv] and [i] Try it yourself! Some consonants are voiced, but ALL vowels are voiced.

12 State of the vocal cords cont.
Narrow glottis

13 State of the vocal cords cont.
3) Closed glottis, i.e. vocal folds are firmly pressed together. Airstream is stopped completely Glottal stop The [t] in American English in words like ‘button’ Arabic

14 State of the vocal cords cont.
Closed glottis

15 State of the vocal cords cont.
Other less common configurations: When vocal cords open only at one end (creaky voice); e.g. (Hausa) When the vocal cords are apart; but force of air may still cause some vibration (breathy voice), or (murmured); e.g (Hindi)

16 The Velum Velum (soft palate): muscular flap at the back of the roof of the mouth When velum is raised; air flows into the oral tract resulting in oral sounds when velum is lowered, air flows into both mouth & nose resulting in nasal sounds as [m, n]

17 The Oral Tract The air passages above the larynx are known as ‘vocal tract’ The shape of the vocal tract is very important in the production of speech. Made up of: Oral cavity (mouth and pharynx) Nasal cavity The parts of the vocal tract that are used to form sounds are called articulators. Upper and lower surface

18 The Oral Tract Contains: Active articulators: lower lip & tongue
Passive articulators: upper surfaces of the oral tract (non-mobile parts) upper lip, teeth, pharynx wall & roof of the mouth which includes: Alveolar ridge- behind upper teeth Hard palate- bony structure Soft palate or velum- at the back of the mouth

19 The Oral Tract Tongue- five areas: 1) Tip at the very front
2) Blade below the alveolar ridge 3) Front below the hard palate 4) Back below the soft palate 5) Root towards the rear wall of the pharynx

20 The Oral Tract (Tongue)

21 Manner of articulation
How close the active and passive articulators come to each other (stricture)? Refers to the way in which the airstream is modified in the vocal tract Closure Narrowing Approximation

22 Stops A complete closure at the place of articulation
Two types: oral and nasal Oral stops Velum is raised Articulators are close enough (in different points) to build pressure in the oral cavity. Airstream is released with a burst of sound

23 Fricatives Think of friction Airstream partially obstructed
Hissing sounds sibilants= high-pitched hissing sounds [s] and [ʃ]

24 Affricates ʤ = voiced post-alveolar affricate
An affricate is a stop with an extended and controlled fricative phase following the obstruction a combination of stop + fricative): ʧ = voiceless post-alveolar affricate ʤ = voiced post-alveolar affricate

25 Approximant Articulators approach each other but do not touch
[j] in ‘yes’ and [w] in ‘we’ Always voiced

26 Liquids, Glides & Vowels
Free passage of air through oral tract Vowels & glides [y, w]: articulators are wide apart & air flows unhindered (open approximation) Liquids [l, r]: contact & free air passage

27 Place of articulation What parts of the vocal tract are used to produce a sound Name is based on passive articulator Types of obstruction required in the description of English consonants

28 Place of articulation

29 Place of articulation Retroflex: tongue tip is curled towards the back of the mouth; ‘t’ & ‘d’ in Indian English Pharyngeal: moving root of the tongue towards back of the throat

30 Place of articulation

31 Speech Sound Classification
We classify consonants according to: Voicing Place of articulation Manner of articulation & Vowels according to: part of the tongue used Position of the tongue Lip rounding

32 Supra-segmental Structure
Syllable: not easy to define; can be counted All syllables have vowels (obligatory)& may be preceded and/or followed by one or more consonants Some syllables carry more stress (produced with more muscular effort, louder & longer) nasals & liquids may form syllables without a vowel (syllabic) Syllable structure: The vowel (peak, or nucleus) Consonants preceding nucleus (onset) Consonants following nucleus (coda)

33 Consonants vs. vowels Consonants: there is obstruction in the oral tract Vowels: no hindrance to the outflow of air Liquids & nasals: the air flows out freely Glides don’t form nuclei of syllables, but occur on the edges of syllables Vowel: produced with open approximation and is a syllable nuclei (excluding glides, syllabic liquids & nasals)

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