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Phonetics III: Dimensions of Articulation October 15, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Phonetics III: Dimensions of Articulation October 15, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phonetics III: Dimensions of Articulation October 15, 2012

2 A Quick and Dirty Review Let’s run through that last set of practice exercises… Last time we learned about…. phonemes, phones, and allophones phonetic transcription the primary phonemes of the English language the principle of contrast This time we’ll learn: how we actually produce the sounds of English

3 Tools of the Trade vocal tract diaphragm

4 A Basic Distinction Vowels and Consonants Vowels: unconstricted flow of air through vocal tract (above the larynx) Consonants: completely or severely constricted flow of air through vocal tract Also: sound is often created at the consonant constriction Let’s look at the production of consonants first… (it’s easier to sense what we’re doing with our articulators)

5 Consonants Consonants are produced with more obstruction of the airflow through the vocal tract than vowels They are characterized by the following set of attributes: 1.Voicing vocal fold position and movement 2.Place of Articulation location of constriction in the vocal tract 3.Manner of Articulation type of constriction made in the vocal tract

6 Voicing On the way out of the lungs Air passes through the trachea Reaches the larynx The larynx consists of two “vocal folds” which may be opened and closed. If the vocal folds are: air passes cleanly through = voiceless sound 2. lightly brought together: vocal folds vibrate in passing air = voiced sound

7 Vocal Fold Schematics Voiceless (folds open)Voiced (folds together)

8 Some Voicing Distinctions Among English consonants: VoicelessVoicedVoicelessVoiced [f][v][p][b] [t][d] [s][z][k][g]

9 Laryngoscopy Source:

10 Stefan’s Bogus video

11 Place of Articulation bilabial = constriction made by both lips bilabial consonants in English include: [p][b] [m]

12 Place of Articulation labio-dental = constriction made by lower lip and upper teeth labio-dental consonants in English include: [f][v]

13 Place of Articulation interdental = constriction made by pushing tip of tongue between the teeth interdental consonants in English include:

14 Place of Articulation alveolar = constriction made by tip of tongue against alveolar ridge alveolar consonants in English include: [t][d] [s][z] [n][l]

15 Place of Articulation post-alveolar = constriction made by blade of tongue behind alveolar ridge post-alveolar consonants in English include: [r]

16 Place of Articulation palatal = constriction made by body of tongue near top of the palate the only palatal consonant in English is: [j]

17 Place of Articulation velar = constriction made by back of tongue against soft palate velar consonants in English include: [k][g]

18 Place of Articulation glottal = constriction made at the glottis glottal consonants in English include: [h]

19 Stefan’s Bogus Video, again

20 Manner of Articulation 1.Stop = complete closure in vocal tract English stops: [p][t] [k] [b] [d] [g] 2.Fricative - narrow constriction that causes disruption of airflow think “friction” English fricatives: [f] [s] [h] [v] [z]

21 Manner of Articulation 3. Affricate = brief closure with a fricated release English affricates: 4. Nasal = velum is lowered and allows air to flow through the nose English nasals: [m][n]

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