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Presentation on theme: "PHONETICS & PHONOLOGY COURSE WINTER TERM 2014/2015."— Presentation transcript:


2 Airstream mechanism Pulmonic Air flow is directed outwards towards the oral cavity Pressure built by compression of lungs English [p], [n], [s], [l], [e]

3 Airstream mechanism Gllotic - Egressive Air flow is directed outwards towards the oral cavity Pressure built by pushing up closed glottis Georgian [p’], [t’], [k’]

4 Airstream mechanism Gllotic Egressive Mechanism

5 Airstream mechanism Gllotic - Ingressive Air flow is directed inwards from the oral cavity Pressure reduced by pulling down closed glottis Hausa, Sindhi [ ɓ, ɠ ]

6 Airstream mechanism Gllotic Ingressive Mechanism

7 Airstream mechanism Vellaric Air flow is directed inwards from the oral cavity Pressure reduced by forming vellaric and alveolar closure and pulling down tongue

8 Airstream mechanism Velaric Mechanism

9 All sounds are made with some movements of air The basic source of power is the lungs The air goes up the windpipe (trachea) and into the larynx and out of the body through the vocal tract (i.e. mouth or nose) Airstream mechanism

10 The organs of speech fall into three groupings: Respiratory system: Lungs generating air stream Phonatory system: larynx and vocal folds Articulatory system: vocal tract Speech organs


12 Lungs Most human sounds are produced by an egressive pulmonic airstream. i.e. lungs pushing the air outwards During speech, the lungs take in air rapidly and let it go slowly.

13 Lungs

14 Larynx Found at the very top of the trachea Contains the two vocal folds, one on the left one on the right.

15 Vocal folds Their outer edges are attached to muscle in the larynx while their inner edges are free. If the back end of the vocal folds are held apart, a triangular space opens up between them. The space is called glottis.

16 State of the vocal folds Adjustments of the glottis is very crucial in speech production 3 positions 1) Open glottis, i.e. the folds are apart normal breathing voiceless sounds [sssssssssss] and [ffffffffffffffffff]

17 Open glottis

18 State of the vocal folds 2) Narrow glottis: i.e. held gently together The air from the lungs forces its way through them causing the folds to vibrate. Voiced sounds [zzzzzzzz], [vvvvvvvvv] and [i] Some consonants are voiced, but ALL vowels are voiced.

19 Narrow glottis

20 State of the vocal folds 3) Closed glottis, i.e. vocal folds are firmly pressed together. Airstream is stopped completely Glottal stop The [t] in American English in words like ‘button’ Arabic

21 Closed glottis

22 Vocal tract The air passages above the larynx are known as ‘vocal tract’ The shape of the vocal tract is very important in the production of speech. Made up of: Oral cavity (mouth and pharynx) Nasal cavity The parts of the vocal tract that are used to form sounds are called articulators. Upper and lower surface

23 Vocal tract

24 Lips Move upper and lower lips [b] and [m] Round both your lips [u] Lower lip contact upper teeth [f] Teeth

25 Vocal tract Roof of the mouth Alveolar ridge- behind upper teeth Hard palate- bony structure Soft palate or velum- at the back of the mouth Muscular flap that can be raised to shut off the nasal cavity velic closure Uvula Pharynx – sound production in Arabic

26 Vocal tract Tongue- five areas: 1) Tip at the very front 2) Blade below the alveolar ridge 3) Front below the hard palate 4) Back below the soft palate 5) Root towards the rear wall of the pharynx

27 Tongue

28 Nasal cavity Do not perform any articulation There are no moveable parts Sounds produced with the usage of velum

29 Speech Organs Ex. Try to name the speech organs provided on the picture below:

30 Speech organs Helpful glossary 1.Nasal cavity=nosna šupljina 2.Oral cavity=usna šupljina 3.Pharynx=ždrelo 4.Alveolar ridge=alveolarni greben 5.Hard & soft palate=tvrdo i meko nepce 6.Blade of tongue=lopatica jezika 7.Vocal folds=glasne žice 8.Trachea=dušnik 9.Larynx= grkljan


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