Presentation on theme: "Grammatical Aspects of Language Phonetics: The Sounds of Language."— Presentation transcript:
Grammatical Aspects of Language Phonetics: The Sounds of Language
Phonetics Phonetics is the study of speech sounds.
Phonetics Phoneme: a single sound in speech –the smallest unit of speech Bus is made up of three phonemes: –B + UH + S –You can divide this word into phonemes because you know the language A cough, clearing your throat, etc. is not a phoneme because it isn’t combined with other phonemes to make a morpheme
Phonemes Not all languages have the same phonemes –Tsk is a phoneme in Zulu (a language that includes clicking sounds), but not in English –The ch sound in Chanukah spoken by a Hebrew speaker (or Dutch, German, etc.) is not a phoneme in English. –Most speakers of American English don’t roll their rs, but many other languages do. –The th sound in the is a phoneme in English, but not in French
The Alphabet Our alphabet doesn’t consistently reflect how letters are pronounced. –Did he believe that Caesar could see the people seize the seas? –My father wanted many a village dame badly. –resign, autumn, ghost, pterodactyl, write, knot –The vs. bath (voiced / unvoiced) –Cute, side (diphthongs: one or two letters)
The Alphabet George Bernard Shaw liked to spell fish as ghoti: –gh as in tough –o as in women –ti as in nation
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Symbols that represent fundamental sounds in all languages There are many more symbols for words in different languages. This is just a basic list.
Places of articulation—consonants Bilabials: sounds made by bringing both lips together –ball, mall, pal Labiodentals: bottom lip to upper teeth –ferry, very Interdentals: tip of tongue between teeth think, these
Places of articulation—consonants Alveolars: some part of the tongue raised behind teeth –tip, dip, near, sear, zeal, lean, reef –Alveolar ridge: right behind the teeth –Can be tip, sides, or back of tongue Palatials: front part of tongue to hard palate –Hard palate: main part of the roof of the mouth, behind the alveolar ridge. –Tongue is raised but may or may not touch –Mission, measure, cheap, judge, yoyo
Places of articulation—consonants Velars: back of tongue to back of the mouth –Soft palate / velar = back of the mouth –Kick, gig, back, bag, bang Glottals –Air flows through open vocal chords (glottis) –High, here –Glottal stop: stopping the flow of air with the vocal chords: Uh-oh, button
Voiced and voiceless consonants Tip vs. dip Teeth vs. there Rope vs. robe Rack vs. rag Breathe vs. breath Fine vs. vine