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The sounds of language Phonetics Chapter 4.

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1 The sounds of language Phonetics Chapter 4

2 Phonetics- Basics Definition: the study of human speech sounds
Know what an individual sound is. Cat consists of [k] represented by the letter c, the vowel [æ] represented by a and the final [t]

3 The sound-spelling relationship
Did he believe that Caesar could see the people seize the seas? To too two through threw clue shoe tough “uff“ cough “off“ bough “aw“ though “oh“ through “ooh“ borough “uh“ hiccough “up“

4 The sound-spelling relationship
Spelling is not a reliable guide to pronouncing a word in English A system is needed where one sound corresponds to one symbol and one symbol corresponds to one sound. Phonetic Alphabet- one symbol for each sound. International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to symbolize all sounds of all languages

5 Fields of Phonetics Articulatory phonetics Acoustic phonetics
How sounds are produced Acoustic phonetics Physical properties of sounds Auditory phonetics How sounds are perceived This class: Articulatory phonetics

6 Articulatory phonetics
Questions: How can we describe speech sounds in terms of how they are produced in the vocal tract? How can we transcribe these sounds? Goal: A systematic method of how to describe and transcribe the sounds occurring in human languages.

7 How Are Sounds Produced?
Most sounds are produced by an air stream coming from the lungs passing through one or more speech organs. Where and how the air stream is obstructed determine the identity of the sound produced. When the shape of the vocal tract changes, different sounds are produced.

8 Speech Production Mechanism
Nasal cavity Oral cavity Pharynx Vocal folds Glottis Energy source VOCAL TRACT (shapes sounds) LARYNX (voicing) LUNGS

9 Vocal Organs- articulators

10 Consonants & Vowels Sounds

11 Consonants Consonants are classified according to three parameters.
Voicing Place of articulation Manner of articulation

12 Voicing Voicing occurs in the larynx where the vocal folds are.
When the vocal folds are held together, they start to vibrate when air passes through them → a voiced sound. E.g. zzzzzzzzzzz vvvvvvvvvvvvv When they are held apart, they cannot vibrate; air passes freely through them → a voiceless sound. E.g. ssssssssssssss ffffffffffffff

13 Places of articulation- English
Where in the vocal tract the airflow is restricted. Bilabial- two lips [b, p, m] Labiodental- upper teeth & lower lip [f, v] Dental- between the teeth [θ, ð ] Alveolar- front part of the tongue on alveolar ridge [s, z, n, t, d, l] Palatal- front part of the tongue on the hard palate [ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, j] Velar- the back of the tongue on the velum [k, g, ŋ] Glottal- through open glottis [h]

14 Places of articulation

15 Places of articulation

16 Place of articulation Labiodentals

17 Place of articulation

18 Places of articulation

19 Places of articulation

20 Places of articulation

21 Glottal stop and flap Glottal stop [ʔ] occurs when the space between the vocal cords (the glottis) is closed completely. American pronunciation of Oh oh bottle batman Flap [ɾ] produced by the tongue tip tapping the alveolar ridge briefly. Latter writer metal

22 Manner of articulation
[b] and [m] → voiced bilabials [d] and [z] → voiced alveolar [t] and [s] → voiceless alveolar How are they different? In the way the air is restricted in the vocal tract → manner of articulation

23 Manners of articulation
Stops → complete blockage [p, t, k, b, d, g] (also plosives) Fricatives → partial blockage [f, v, s, z…] Affricates → stop + fricative [tʃ, dʒ] Nasal → through nasal cavity [m, n, ŋ] glides [j, w] → take the shape of the vowel (also semi-vowels, approximants) Liquids → lowering both sides of the tongue [l , r]

24 Manner of articulation

25 Consonants

26 Consonants

27 Consonants Can be described by using three parameters: voicing, place of articulation and manner of articulation Examples: [p] voiceless bilabial stop [n] voiced alveolar nasal [d] [ŋ]

28 What is a vowel? A sound produced without major constriction in the vocal tract No articulators touching or even coming close Since the sound is not produced by constriction, the energy comes primarily from the vocal cords Vowels are all voiced

29 Vowels Vowels can be classified by answering three questions
How high is the tongue? High- mid - low What part of the tongue is involved? Front- central- back What is the position of the lips? Rounded or unrounded

30 Tongue positions Tongue height
High [i, u] Mid [ε, o] Low [æ] Say seat, set, sat transcribed [i], [ε], [æ]

31 Tongue position Tongue backness Front [i], [æ] Central [ə]
Back [u], [o], [a] Say he and who

32 Front and back vowels Who [hu] He [hi]

33 Preview of vocal tract shaping
Say “heave” and “have” Say “who” and “ha” What do you notice going on in your mouth?

34 Classification: Tongue Height
High: Heave Who Low: Have Ha

35 Lip rounding Rounded [u], [o] [u] noon [o] boat Unrounded [i] heat
[I] hit

36 Vowel Chart

37 Diphthongs A combination of two sounds vowel + glide [aw] cow, loud
[ɔj] boy, void, noise [aj] buy, eye, my

38 Vowels description Can be classified according to three parameters: height, backness, and lip rounding Examples: [i] high front unrounded vowel [u] high back rounded vowel

39 Phonetic Transcription
The best-known system: The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) IPA has been developing since 1888. The system represents each sound of human speech with a single symbol. The symbol is enclosed in brackets [ ].

40 Benefits of Phonetic Transcription
We can use IPA transcription across languages, there is one symbol for EVERY possible human sound There is a 1-1 correspondence of sound to symbol Cat [kæt] Cell [sel]

41 Consonant chart

42 Activity: identifying diphthongs
call top Fright joy Haste Avoid Proud Hide

43 Transcription Practice
Transcribe the following words Kick Boot She The Thin

44 Important terms Articulatory phonetics articulators
Consonants and vowels Places of articulation Manner of articulation Voicing Parameters for describing vowels Phonetic transcription

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