2 Phonetics- Basics Definition: the study of human speech sounds Know what an individual sound is.Cat consists of [k] represented by the letter c, the vowel [æ] represented by a and the final [t]
3 The sound-spelling relationship Did he believe that Caesar could see the people seize the seas?To too two through threw clue shoetough “uff“cough “off“bough “aw“though “oh“through “ooh“borough “uh“hiccough “up“
4 The sound-spelling relationship Spelling is not a reliable guide to pronouncing a word in EnglishA system is needed where one sound corresponds to one symbol and one symbol corresponds to one sound.Phonetic Alphabet- one symbol for each sound.International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to symbolize all sounds of all languages
5 Fields of Phonetics Articulatory phonetics Acoustic phonetics How sounds are producedAcoustic phoneticsPhysical properties of soundsAuditory phoneticsHow sounds are perceivedThis class: Articulatory phonetics
6 Articulatory phonetics Questions:How can we describe speech sounds in terms of how they are produced in the vocal tract?How can we transcribe these sounds?Goal:A systematic method of how to describe and transcribe the sounds occurring in human languages.
7 How Are Sounds Produced? Most sounds are produced by an air stream coming from the lungs passing through one or more speech organs.Where and how the air stream is obstructed determine the identity of the sound produced.When the shape of the vocal tract changes, different sounds are produced.
8 Speech Production Mechanism Nasal cavityOral cavityPharynxVocal foldsGlottisEnergy sourceVOCAL TRACT(shapessounds)LARYNX(voicing)LUNGS
11 Consonants Consonants are classified according to three parameters. VoicingPlace of articulationManner of articulation
12 Voicing Voicing occurs in the larynx where the vocal folds are. When the vocal folds are held together, they start to vibrate when air passes through them → a voiced sound.E.g. zzzzzzzzzzz vvvvvvvvvvvvvWhen they are held apart, they cannot vibrate; air passes freely through them → a voiceless sound.E.g. ssssssssssssss ffffffffffffff
13 Places of articulation- English Where in the vocal tract the airflow is restricted.Bilabial- two lips [b, p, m]Labiodental- upper teeth & lower lip [f, v]Dental- between the teeth [θ, ð ]Alveolar- front part of the tongue on alveolar ridge [s, z, n, t, d, l]Palatal- front part of the tongue on the hard palate [ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, j]Velar- the back of the tongue on the velum [k, g, ŋ]Glottal- through open glottis [h]
21 Glottal stop and flapGlottal stop [ʔ] occurs when the space between the vocal cords (the glottis) is closed completely.American pronunciation ofOh oh bottle batmanFlap [ɾ] produced by the tongue tip tapping the alveolar ridge briefly.Latter writer metal
22 Manner of articulation [b] and [m] → voiced bilabials[d] and [z] → voiced alveolar[t] and [s] → voiceless alveolarHow are they different?In the way the air is restricted in the vocal tract → manner of articulation
23 Manners of articulation Stops → complete blockage [p, t, k, b, d, g] (also plosives)Fricatives → partial blockage [f, v, s, z…]Affricates → stop + fricative [tʃ, dʒ]Nasal → through nasal cavity [m, n, ŋ]glides [j, w] → take the shape of the vowel (also semi-vowels, approximants)Liquids → lowering both sides of the tongue [l , r]
27 ConsonantsCan be described by using three parameters: voicing, place of articulation and manner of articulationExamples:[p] voiceless bilabial stop[n] voiced alveolar nasal[d][ŋ]
28 What is a vowel?A sound produced without major constriction in the vocal tractNo articulators touching or even coming closeSince the sound is not produced by constriction, the energy comes primarily from the vocal cordsVowels are all voiced
29 Vowels Vowels can be classified by answering three questions How high is the tongue?High- mid - lowWhat part of the tongue is involved?Front- central- backWhat is the position of the lips?Rounded or unrounded
30 Tongue positions Tongue height High [i, u]Mid [ε, o]Low [æ]Say seat, set, sat transcribed [i], [ε], [æ]
31 Tongue position Tongue backness Front [i], [æ] Central [ə] Back [u], [o], [a]Say he and who
37 Diphthongs A combination of two sounds vowel + glide [aw] cow, loud [ɔj] boy, void, noise[aj] buy, eye, my
38 Vowels descriptionCan be classified according to three parameters: height, backness, and lip roundingExamples:[i] high front unrounded vowel[u] high back rounded vowel
39 Phonetic Transcription The best-known system:The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)IPA has been developing since 1888.The system represents each sound of human speech with a single symbol.The symbol is enclosed in brackets [ ].
40 Benefits of Phonetic Transcription We can use IPA transcription across languages, there is one symbol for EVERY possible human soundThere is a 1-1 correspondence of sound to symbolCat [kæt]Cell [sel]