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Introduction to Linguistics Chapter 2: Phonetics

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1 Introduction to Linguistics Chapter 2: Phonetics
Instructor: LIU Hongyong

2 Phonetics: the study of speech sounds
Although different languages contain different sounds, the sounds of all the languages of the world constitute a class of sounds that the human vocal tract is able to make. All these sounds are human speech sounds. The study of human speech sounds is called phonetics.

3 Phonology: the study of sound patterns
This property is called "duality (in patterning)". When you know a language you know the sounds of that language, and you know how to combine those sounds into words. For example, If you know the sounds /p/, /a:/, /k/, you are able to combine them to form the words park or carp, but you know there is no sound pattern /a:pk/ or /a:kp/ in English. The study of the way sounds form patterns is called phonology. Phonology aims to discover how speech sounds in a particular language form patterns.

4 Three branches of phonetics
Articulatory phonetics: the study of how the vocal tract produces the sounds of language Auditory phonetics: the study of the perception of speech sounds Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical properties of the speech sounds

5 2.2.2 Organs of speech

6 14 15 咽腔 A. The pharyngeal cavity:
13 windpipe, 12 glottis/vocal cords, 11 pharyngeal cavity B. The oral cavity: 1/2 lips, 3/4 teeth, 5 teeth ridge(alveolus), 6 hard palate,7 soft palate (velum), 14 uvula, 8 tip of tongue, 9 blade of tongue, 10 back of tongue C. Nasal cavity: 15 15 14 咽腔

7 Vocal folds (cords) The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of two membranes stretched horizontally across the larynx. A slow-motion animation of the vocal folds vibrating during speech

8 Voicing: voiced vs. voiceless
Vibration of the vocal cords results in "voicing", which is a feature of all vowels and some consonants. Such consonants are voiced. When the vocal cords are drawn wide open, letting air go through the glottis without causing vibration, the sounds produced in such a condition are voiceless.

9 Three nasal consonants in English
bilabial nasal 双唇鼻音: /m/ alveolar nasal 齿龈鼻音: /n/ velar nasal 软腭鼻音: sink, sing, song

10 Orthographic representation of speech sounds
IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet): A standardized and internationally accepted system of phonetic transcription. The basic principle of the IPA is using one letter to represent one sound.

11 Broad and Narrow Transcription
1. Diacritics(发音符号/辨音符): the set of symbols in IPA, which are added to the letter-symbols to represent small distinctions of sounds. /l/: leaf [li:f], feel [fi:ł] (clear vs. dark) /p/: pit [phit], spit [spit] (aspirated vs. unaspirated)

12 Broad and Narrow Transcription
Broad transcription(宽式音标): The transcription of sounds with letter-symbols only. / _ / Narrow transcription(严式音标): The transcription of sounds with letter-symbols together with the diacritics. [ _ ]

13 Classification of English sounds
English speech sounds: Vowels: Speech sounds which are produced with no obstruction of the vocal tract, so no turbulence or a total stopping of the air can be perceived. Consonants: Speech sounds which are produced by constricting or obstructing the vocal tract at some place to modulate the flow of air in the vocal tract.

14 Classification of English consonants
Manner of articulation (发音方式) Place of articulation (发音部位)

15 Manner of articulation

16 Place of articulation


18 The IPA chart sounds

19 Classification of English vowels
Vowels can be divided by a number of factors: The position of the tongue: front, central, back The openness of the mouth: open, semi-open, semi-close, close The shape of the lips: rounded, unrounded The length of the vowels: long, short

20 IPA vowels

21 Online phonetics resources

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